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The extent to which large duplications and deletions contribute to human genetic variation and diversity is unknown. Here, we show that large-scale copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) (about 100 kilobases and greater) contribute substantially to genomic variation between normal humans. Representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis of 20 individuals(More)
Representational Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis (ROMA) detects genomic amplifications and deletions with boundaries defined at a resolution of approximately 50 kb. We have used this technique to examine 243 breast tumors from two separate studies for which detailed clinical data were available. The very high resolution of this technology has enabled us(More)
One of the enigmas in tumor biology is that different types of cancers are prevalent in different age groups. One possible explanation is that the ability of a specific oncogene to cause tumorigenesis in a particular cell type depends on epigenetic parameters such as the developmental context. To address this hypothesis, we have used the tetracycline(More)
Separase is a protease whose liberation from its inhibitory chaperone Securin triggers sister chromatid disjunction at anaphase onset in yeast by cleaving cohesin's kleisin subunit. We have created conditional knockout alleles of the mouse Separase and Securin genes. Deletion of both copies of Separase but not Securin causes embryonic lethality. Loss of(More)
Activation of telomerase is a crucial step during cellular immortalization and malignant transformation of human cells and requires the induction of the catalytic component, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), encoded by the hTERT gene. It is poorly understood how the hTERT gene is activated in human cancer cells. In the present study, we(More)
Numerous investigations have shown that in primary breast adenocarcinomas DNA aneuploidy in contrast to DNA diploidy indicates high malignancy potential. On the basis of the study of 104 breast carcinomas, we describe a subtype of aneuploidy, which demonstrates a low degree of malignancy. In image cytometric DNA histograms, this subtype possessed a low(More)
Cancer progression in humans is difficult to infer because we do not routinely sample patients at multiple stages of their disease. However, heterogeneous breast tumors provide a unique opportunity to study human tumor progression because they still contain evidence of early and intermediate subpopulations in the form of the phylogenetic relationships. We(More)
Deregulation of cyclin E expression has been associated with a broad spectrum of human malignancies. Analysis of DNA replication in cells constitutively expressing cyclin E at levels similar to those observed in a subset of tumor-derived cell lines indicates that initiation of replication and possibly fork movement are severely impaired. Such cells show a(More)
The temporal relationship between cyclin A accumulation and the onset of DNA replication was analyzed in detail. Five untransformed and nine transformed asynchronously growing cell cultures were investigated using a triple immunofluorescence staining protocol combined with computerized evaluation of staining intensities in individual cells. The simultaneous(More)
Although agents which act in a cell cycle phase specific manner are commonly used in the clinic and in basic research, it is as yet unclear why these agents are cytotoxic. In this paper, we examine the cellular events associated with the cytotoxicity of aphidicolin and vincristine in CHO strain AA8 cells. Cell killing resulting from aphidicolin treatment(More)