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Serum samples from patients with meningococcal disease were examined for the presence of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and LPS. Median serum concentration of IL-6 was 1,000 times higher in patients with septic shock (189 ng/ml) than in patients with bacteriaemia, meningitis, or combined septic shock and meningitis. 11 of 21 patients with serum levels greater than 3.0(More)
Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the surface of, and actively shed by, myeloma cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a cytokine produced by myeloma cells. Previous studies have demonstrated elevated levels of syndecan-1 and HGF in the serum of patients with myeloma, both of negative prognostic value for the disease. Here we show(More)
Experimental studies have demonstrated that TNFa/cachectin is an important mediator in septic shock (1-3), and that IL-1 synergizes with TNFa in producing lung tissue damage and lethal shock (4, 5). Furthermore, previous studies have shown that the systemic release of TNFa (6), IL-1 (7, 8), and IL-6 (8) is associated with septic shock and fatal outcome in(More)
The present study was designed to determine the extent to which cultured glial cells phagocytose normal central nervous system (CNS) myelin and CNS myelin opsonized with serum or purified antibody against myelin basic protein (MBP). Glial cells studied were mixed cultures (consisting of astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes) and enriched microglia(More)
Serum samples taken on admission from 79 patients with meningococcal meningitis, septicaemia, or both, were examined in a highly sensitive bioassay for tumour necrosis factor (TNF). TNF was detected in samples from 10 of 11 patients who died but from only 8 of 68 survivors. All 5 patients with serum TNF levels over 440 units/ml (corresponding to 0.1 ng/ml(More)
Human rIL-1 alpha and human rIL-1 beta were examined for their ability to potentiate the lethal and hypothermic effects of mouse rTNF-alpha in mice. The LD50 of rTNF-alpha was 1.5 micrograms/mouse, whereas the LD50 of rTNF-alpha was reduced to 0.4 micrograms/mouse and 0.5 micrograms/mouse when rTNF-alpha was administered in combination with a nonlethal dose(More)
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a recently cloned cytokine with homology to IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15. In this study we examined the effects of IL-21 on human myeloma cells. We found that IL-21 induced proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of the IL-6-dependent human myeloma cell lines ANBL-6, IH-1, and OH-2. The potency of IL-21 was close to that of IL-6 in the OH-2(More)
Antigen presentation by endogenous glial cells is postulated to regulate reactivity of immune cells that gain entry into the CNS. We have previously observed, using a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system, that adult human-derived microglia can function as antigen-presenting cells (APC) for immediately ex vivo CD4+ T cells in a primary MLR (1 degree MLR)(More)
OBJECTIVES Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potential key factor in multiple myeloma. Conversion of pro-HGF to its active form is a critical limiting step for its biological effects. We aimed to examine the levels of the most potent activator, the hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA), in serum and bone marrow plasma of patients with multiple(More)
Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells predominantly located in the bone marrow. A number of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce apoptosis in myeloma cells in vitro, and with this study we add BMP-9 to the list. BMP-9 has been found in human serum at concentrations that inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. We here show that the level of(More)