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Recent development in three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cancellous bone has made possible true 3-D quantification of trabecular architecture. This provides a significant improvement of the tools available for studying and understanding the mechanical functions of cancellous bone. This article reviews the different techniques for 3-D imaging, which include(More)
This study addresses the possible significance of trabecular connectivity for the mechanical quality of cancellous bone. A total of 141 cubic trabecular bone specimens collected from autopsy material from 56 individuals without any known bone or metastatic diseases were used. Age variation was in the range of 14-91 years and a wide range of trabecular(More)
The hypothesis that trabecular morphology can predict the elastic properties of cancellous bone has only partly been verified and no predictive analytical model is currently available. Such models are becoming increasingly relevant as the resolution levels of three-dimensional scanning techniques approach the size of trabeculae. This study took advantage of(More)
The apparent mechanical behavior of trabecular bone depends on properties at the tissue or trabecular level. Many investigators have attempted to determine trabecular tissue properties and loading. However, accuracy and applicability of all methods reported are limited. The small size of the trabeculae and a possible size effect are complicating factors(More)
The relationship between the mechanical properties of trabecular bone in tension and compression was investigated by non-destructive testing of the same specimens in tension and compression, followed by random allocation to a destructive test in either tension or compression. There was no difference between Young's modulus in tension and compression, and(More)
A method is presented to find orthotropic elastic symmetries and constants directly from the elastic coefficients in the overall stiffness matrix of trabecular bone test specimens. Contrary to earlier developed techniques, this method does not require pure orthotropic behavior or additional fabric measurements. The method uses high-resolution computer(More)
A thorough understanding of the microstructure of cancellous bone is crucial for diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of age-related skeletal diseases. Until now, little has been known about age-related variations in the microstructure of peripheral cancellous bone. This study quantified age-related changes in the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of(More)
Conceptually, the elastic characteristics of cancellous bone could be predicted directly from the trabecular morphology--or architecture--and by the elastic properties of the tissue itself. Although hardly any experimental evidence exists, it is often implicitly assumed that tissue anisotropy has a negligible effect on the apparent elastic properties of(More)
We aimed to highlight the relationship between age and the architectural properties of trabecular bone, to outline the patterns in which the variations in these properties take place, and to investigate the influence of the architecture on the mechanical properties of trabecular bone in growing animals. We studied 30 lambs in three age groups and 20 sheep(More)
Unbiased stereological methods were used in conjunction with microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) scans of human and animal bone to investigate errors created when the parallel plate model was used to calculate morphometric parameters. Bone samples were obtained from the human proximal tibia, canine distal femur, rat tail, and pig spine and scanned in a(More)