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Experiments were conducted to investigate pattern formation during the defluidization of a partially fluidized bimodal granular mixture. Partial fluidization occurs when the system is driven at gas velocities that are insufficient to fluidize all of the constituent particles. Over time, the granular mixture evolves into a variety of patterns depending on(More)
Deformation. Front. Phys. 4:2. We report the results from a series of chalk flow-through-compaction experiments performed at three effective stresses (0.5, 3.5, and 12.3 MPa) and two temperatures (92 and 130 • C). The results show that both stress and temperature are important to both chemical alteration and mechanical deformation. The experiments were(More)
Crustose lichen communities on rocks exhibit fascinating spatial mosaics resembling political maps of nations or municipalities. Although the establishment and development of biological populations are important themes in ecology, our understanding of the formation of such patterns on the rocks is still in its infancy. Here, we present a novel model of the(More)
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