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Behavioral research has demonstrated three major components of the lexical-semantic processing system: automatic activation of semantic representations, strategic retrieval of semantic representations, and inhibition of competitors. However, these component processes are inherently conflated in explicit lexical-semantic decision tasks typically used in(More)
Principal component analysis (PCA) is one of several structure-seeking multivariate statistical techniques, exploratory as well as inferential, that have been proposed recently for the characterization and detection of activation in both PET and fMRI time series data. In particular, PCA is data driven and does not assume that the neural or hemodynamic(More)
While the pathophysiological changes induced by the loss of dopamine innervation in the basal ganglia by Parkinson's disease (PD) are well studied, little is known about functional changes in the neural circuitry of this area during normal aging. Here we report the first survey of age-associated changes in the basal ganglia of behaviorally characterized,(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to analyze blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the nigrostriatal system (caudate nucleus, putamen and substantia nigra) of awake rhesus monkeys to systemic apomorphine administration. The study (1) measured BOLD responses as an index of neuronal activity in the three structures following(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether brain function is altered in cognitively normal individuals at high risk for AD several years before the typical age at onset for this illness. BACKGROUND Neuropathologic alterations in AD precede cognitive impairment by several years. It is unknown whether functional alterations in neural circuitry accompany these(More)
Motor slowing is a universal feature of human aging, and parkinsonian signs are commonly expressed in human senescence. In the present study, age-associated declines in motor functions in 31 female rhesus monkeys were quantified by activity monitors and an automated test panel, and the incidence of parkinsonian signs was scored using a movement dysfunction(More)
Increased white matter mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) has been observed in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether similar alterations of white matter occur in normal individuals at risk of AD. Diffusion tensor images were acquired in 42 cognitively(More)
BACKGROUND Imaging studies have shown disparities in resting metabolism and in functional activation between cognitively normal individuals at high and low risk for AD. A recent study has shown increased parietal activation in high-risk subjects during a paired associates recall task, which the authors postulated might overlap activation typically observed(More)
We identified human brain regions involved in the perception of sad, frightened, happy, angry, and neutral facial expressions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-one healthy right-handed adult volunteers (11 men, 10 women; aged 18-45; mean age 21.6 years) participated in four separate runs, one for each of the four emotions.(More)
BACKGROUND HIV dementia is a form of subcortical dementia. Clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and biochemical studies suggest a major contribution of basal ganglia dysfunction to the pathogenesis of this disorder. Many investigators have proposed a contribution of a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the pathogenesis of HIV dementia. OBJECTIVE To(More)