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Basic knowledge about learning capacities and awareness in fish is lacking. In this study we investigated which temporal gaps Atlantic cod could tolerate between two associated events, using an appetitive trace-conditioning paradigm with blinking light as conditioned stimulus (CS) and dry fish food as unconditioned stimulus (US). CS-US presentations were(More)
When animals associate a stimulus with food, they may either direct their response towards the stimulus (sign-tracking) or towards the food (goal-tracking). The direction of the conditioned response of cod was investigated to elucidate how cod read cue signals. Groups of cod were conditioned to associate a blinking light (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a(More)
This study describes how three individual fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), developed a novel behaviour and learnt to use a dorsally attached external tag to activate a self-feeder. This behaviour was repeated up to several hundred times, and over time these fish fine-tuned the behaviour and made a series of goal-directed coordinated movements needed to(More)
This study aimed to assess possible shifts in distributional patterns of cetaceans residing in the Norwegian Sea, and to relate the distribution to their feeding ecology during the summer seasons of 2009, 2010, and 2012. During this same period, historically large abundances in the order of 15 million tonnes pelagic planktivorous fish such as Norwegian(More)
We studied the learning capacities and anticipatory behaviour in a "sit-and-wait" predatory fish, the Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. In Experiment 1 two groups of halibut received series of light flashes (conditioned stimulus, CS) that started before delivery of food (unconditioned stimulus, US) and persisted until after food delivery, i.e.(More)
Avoiding predation is generally seen as the most common explanation for why animals aggregate. However, it remains questionable whether the existing theory provides a complete explanation of the functions of large shoals formation in marine fishes. Here, we consider how well the mechanisms commonly proposed to explain enhanced safety of group living prey(More)
The development of aggression between territorial fish has mainly been studied in laboratory experiments using only visual contact. In this study, comparisons of the aggressive behaviour were made between conditions of unlimited and only visual contact. Fighting between two territorial cichlids in direct contact decreased over time in a way similar to the(More)
We compared behavioural and physiological responses and recovery time after different acute environmental challenges in groups of salmon parr. The fish were prior to the study conditioned to a flashing light signalling arrival of food 30 s later to study if the strength of Pavlovian conditioned food anticipatory behaviour can be used to assess how salmon(More)
The behavioural responses of wild (predator-experienced) and hatchery-reared (predator-naive) cod Gadus morhua to standardized mechano-acoustic (MA) stimuli were compared in the laboratory. Wild fish responded mainly with freezing and fast-start escapes away from the stimulus, whereas hatchery-reared fish often ignored or approached the stimulus. Wild fish(More)
During frontal threatening, individuals of the fire-mouth cichlid (Cichlasoma meeki) dilate their opercula, thereby demonstrating two conspicous 'eye-spots'. In a hostile situation, a fish confronted with an opponent whose eye-spots have been experimentally removed is more likely to react with overt aggression towards the other. Fights also follow a more(More)