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When animals associate a stimulus with food, they may either direct their response towards the stimulus (sign-tracking) or towards the food (goal-tracking). The direction of the conditioned response of cod was investigated to elucidate how cod read cue signals. Groups of cod were conditioned to associate a blinking light (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a(More)
Basic knowledge about learning capacities and awareness in fish is lacking. In this study we investigated which temporal gaps Atlantic cod could tolerate between two associated events, using an appetitive trace-conditioning paradigm with blinking light as conditioned stimulus (CS) and dry fish food as unconditioned stimulus (US). CS-US presentations were(More)
We studied the learning capacities and anticipatory behaviour in a "sit-and-wait" predatory fish, the Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. In Experiment 1 two groups of halibut received series of light flashes (conditioned stimulus, CS) that started before delivery of food (unconditioned stimulus, US) and persisted until after food delivery, i.e.(More)
Avoiding predation is generally seen as the most common explanation for why animals aggregate. However, it remains questionable whether the existing theory provides a complete explanation of the functions of large shoals formation in marine fishes. Here, we consider how well the mechanisms commonly proposed to explain enhanced safety of group living prey(More)
We compared behavioural and physiological responses and recovery time after different acute environmental challenges in groups of salmon parr. The fish were prior to the study conditioned to a flashing light signalling arrival of food 30 s later to study if the strength of Pavlovian conditioned food anticipatory behaviour can be used to assess how salmon(More)
This study describes how three individual fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), developed a novel behaviour and learnt to use a dorsally attached external tag to activate a self-feeder. This behaviour was repeated up to several hundred times, and over time these fish fine-tuned the behaviour and made a series of goal-directed coordinated movements needed to(More)
The behavioural responses of wild (predator-experienced) and hatchery-reared (predator-naive) cod Gadus morhua to standardized mechano-acoustic (MA) stimuli were compared in the laboratory. Wild fish responded mainly with freezing and fast-start escapes away from the stimulus, whereas hatchery-reared fish often ignored or approached the stimulus. Wild fish(More)
During frontal threatening, individuals of the fire-mouth cichlid (Cichlasoma meeki) dilate their opercula, thereby demonstrating two conspicous 'eye-spots'. In a hostile situation, a fish confronted with an opponent whose eye-spots have been experimentally removed is more likely to react with overt aggression towards the other. Fights also follow a more(More)
Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched(More)
Different populations of Atlantic herring are regarded as forming a metapopulation, but we know little about the dynamics of the connectivity and degree of interbreeding between the populations. Based on data from three periods between 1962 and 2011, we identified the presence of two components of herring in a small semi-enclosed coastal marine ecosystem(More)