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Sparse coding has become an increasingly popular method in learning and vision for a variety of classification, reconstruction and coding tasks. The canonical approach intrinsically assumes independence between observations during learning. For many natural signals however, sparse coding is applied to sub-elements ( i.e. patches) of the signal, where such(More)
The vast diversity of GABAergic interneurons is believed to endow hippocampal microcircuits with the required flexibility for memory encoding and retrieval. However, dissection of the functional roles of defined interneuron types has been hampered by the lack of cell-specific tools. We identified a precise molecular marker for a population of hippocampal(More)
We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic-Mesolithic genomic(More)
PURPOSE Athletes who use anabolic steroids get larger and stronger muscles. How this is reflected at the level of the muscle fibers has not yet been established and was the topic of this investigation. METHODS Muscle biopsies were obtained from the trapezius muscles of high-level power lifters who have reported the use of anabolic steroids in high doses(More)
The longitudinal movement of blood vessel walls has so far gained little or no attention, as it has been presumed that these movements are of a negligible magnitude. However, modern high-resolution ultrasound scanners can demonstrate that the inner layers of the arterial wall exhibit considerable movements in the longitudinal direction. This paper evaluates(More)
We investigated the role of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the remodeling of the left ventricle from 24 h to 12 wk after myocardial infarction in the rat. Infarct size planimetry, quantification of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) methodology, and echocardiography (left ventricular diastolic(More)
We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal(More)
It is commonly thought that human genetic diversity in non-African populations was shaped primarily by an out-of-Africa dispersal 50-100 thousand yr ago (kya). Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most(More)
Measurement of the frontal cortex and the medulla oblongata pH at autopsy revealed that those brains from individuals who died after long terminal phase had lower pHs than those who died quickly. These low pHs (pH 6.0-6.5) corresponded to lactic acid concentrations (20-25 mM) which are known to be neurotoxic. The cerebrospinal fluid pH and blood pH(More)