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The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007. The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in(More)
The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in(More)
UNLABELLED The common cold and allergic rhinitis constitute a global health problem that affects social life, sleep, school and work performance and is likely to impose a substantial economic burden on society because of absence from work and reduced working capacity. This study assesses the loss of productivity as a result of both allergic rhinitis and the(More)
OBJECTIVES The antiinflammatory effect of macrolide antibiotics has been well-established, as has their role in the treatment of certain disorders of chronic airway inflammation. Several studies have suggested that long-term, low-dose macrolides may be efficacious in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis; however, these studies have lacked a control(More)
The nasal concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was measured by chemiluminescence in healthy volunteers 3-68 years of age, and in patients suffering from common cold and chronic sinusitis. The concentration of NO in healthy subjects, 233.2 +/- 66.8 ppb (mean +/- SD), was found to be relatively independent of age and body size. The measured levels of NO did not(More)
OBJECTIVES Long-term, low-dose macrolide therapy is effective in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. It is believed that macrolide antibiotics produce this benefit through an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the effect of clarithromycin treatment on the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and the key pro-inflammatory nuclear(More)
OBJECTIVES Long-term, low-dose macrolide therapy is effective in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. The mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect and how this differs from corticosteroids remains unclear. The effect of clarithromycin and prednisolone on interleukin-5, interleukin-8, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by(More)
BACKGROUND Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are newly discovered cytosolic receptors belonging to the pattern-recognition receptor family. They detect various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, triggering an immune response. The knowledge about these receptors, and their role in health and disease, is limited. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator and inflammatory marker in human upper airways. Enzymes responsible for NO production have been demonstrated both in the nose and in the paranasal sinuses, but NO levels in the sinuses are reported to be several times higher than those in the nose. It has been postulated that the paranasal sinuses may be(More)