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One of the main problems facing 3D city modelling applications is lack of interoperability among various Building Information Models (BIM) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) models. CityGML (representing a wide range of 3D urban objects) and IFC (representing a very detailed semantic model for buildings) are considered the most prominent semantic(More)
Several tasks in urban and architectural design are today undertaken in a geospatial context. Building Information Models (BIM) and geospatial technologies offer 3D data models that provide information about buildings and the surrounding environment. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and CityGML are today the two most prominent semantic models for(More)
Metadata is the important information describing geographical data resources and their key elements. It is used to guarantee the availability and accessibility of the data. ISO 19115 is a metadata standard for geographical information, making the geographical metadata shareable, retrievable, and understandable at the global level. In order to cope with the(More)
Research interests in the studies of complex systems have been booming in many disciplines for the last decade. As the nature of geographic environment is a complex system, researches in this field are anticipated. In particular, the urban street networks in the Geographic Information System (GIS) as complex networks are brought forth for the thesis study.(More)
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