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The amygdala is a pivotal structure in humans for encoding of emotional information, as shown by recent imaging studies. It is unknown which neurotransmitters are specifically involved in the human amygdala, although in animal studies noradrenaline was shown to be essential. In our study, participants received the betablocker propranolol (which blocks the(More)
Substantial evidence from animal research indicates that enhanced memory associated with emotional experiences involves activation of the beta-adrenergic system. This hypothesis is further supported by the finding in human subjects that blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors with propranolol selectively reduced memory for emotional events. In the present(More)
Free salivary cortisol is an established non-invasive marker of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In contrast, such a well-characterized salivary marker for activity of the sympatho-adrenal medullar (SAM) system is still missing. As one potential candidate salivary alpha amylase (sAA) has been suggested. In humans increases in sAA levels(More)
On the basis of recent evidence indicating a sex-related lateralization of amygdala function in memory for emotional events, together with substantial evidence suggesting hemispheric specialization in processing global (central) versus local (detail) aspects of a situation, and the established dependence of the amygdala's memory modulating function on(More)
Stress is known to differentially modulate memory function. Memory can be impaired or strengthened by stress, depending on e.g. the memory type and phase under study, the emotional value of the learned information and the sex of the subjects. Here, we addressed the latter and investigated the impact of psychosocial stress on long-term memory for neutral and(More)
OBJECTIVE To review and give an overview of neuroimaging studies that look at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. METHOD An overview will be given of imaging studies that looked at the role of stress (hormones) on memory. Stress is here defined as the acute provocation of the sympathetic adrenal medullar system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(More)
Emotional stimuli may prime the motor system and facilitate action readiness. Direct evidence for this effect has been shown by recent studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When administered over the primary motor cortex involved in responding, TMS pulses elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the represented muscles. The amplitudes of(More)
Animal studies show that high cortisol levels exert their effect on stressful task performance via modulation of the amygdala. Availability of noradrenaline in this brain region appears to be a critical prerequisite for this effect. This relationship between noradrenaline and cortisol is explained by an animal model where the amygdala constitutes a crucial(More)
Neuro-endocrine markers such as salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol (CORT) play an important role in establishing human responses to stressful events. Whereas sAA levels reflect sympathetic system activity, salivary cortisol appears to be a valid measure for HPA axis activity. Although many studies looked at either sAA or CORT responses in reaction to(More)