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As glioma cells infiltrate the brain they become associated with various microanatomic brain structures such as blood vessels, white matter tracts, and brain parenchyma. How these distinct invasion patterns coordinate tumor growth and influence clinical outcomes remain poorly understood. We have investigated how perivascular growth affects glioma growth(More)
In the retina of adult teleosts, stem cells are sustained in two specialized niches: the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) and the microenvironment surrounding adult Müller glia. Recently, Müller glia were identified as the regenerative stem cells in the teleost retina. Secreted signaling molecules that regulate neuronal regeneration in the retina are largely(More)
Diverse physiological actions of growth hormone (GH) are mediated by changes in gene transcription. Transcription can be regulated at several levels, including post-translational modification of transcription factors, and formation of multiprotein complexes involving transcription factors, co-regulators and additional nuclear proteins; these serve as(More)
The retina displays numerous processes that follow a circadian rhythm. These processes are coordinated through the direct action of light on photoreceptive molecules and, in the absence of light, through autocrine/paracrine actions of extracellular neuromodulators. We previously described the expression of the genes encoding the secreted heparin-binding(More)
Recent work in human glioblastoma (GBM) has documented recurrent mutations in the histone chaperone protein ATRX. We developed an animal model of ATRX-deficient GBM and showed that loss of ATRX reduces median survival and increases genetic instability. Further, analysis of genome-wide data for human gliomas showed that ATRX mutation is associated with(More)
The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following(More)
Midkine is a small heparin binding growth factor expressed in numerous tissues during development. The unique midkine gene in mammals has two paralogs in zebrafish: midkine-a (mdka) and midkine-b (mdkb). In the zebrafish retina, during both larval development and adult photoreceptor regeneration, mdka is expressed in retinal stem and progenitor cells and(More)
UNLABELLED Investigating neuronal and photoreceptor regeneration in the retina of zebra fish has begun to yield insights into both the cellular and molecular means by which this lower vertebrate is able to repair its central nervous system. However, knowledge about the signaling molecules in the local microenvironment of a retinal injury and the(More)
In the last decade, numerous studies of immunotherapy for malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme) have brought new knowledge and new hope for improving the prognosis of this incurable disease. Some clinical trials have reached Phase III, following positive outcomes in Phase I and II, with respect to safety and immunological end points. Results are(More)
The two major classes of activity-dependent neuroplasticity predict different consequences of activity alteration on circuit response. Hebbian plasticity (positive feedback) posits that alteration of neuronal activity causes a parallel response within a circuit. In contrast, homeostatic plasticity (negative feedback) predicts that altering neuronal activity(More)