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We report here on the current state of our efforts in automated molecular microscopy. Our primary automated data acquisition software system, Leginon, has been completely redesigned over the past two years. The new distributed system has been developed using the Python programming language and is compatible with both Linux and Windows operating systems. The(More)
The analysis of microcircuitry (the connectivity at the level of individual neuronal processes and synapses), which is indispensable for our understanding of brain function, is based on serial transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or one of its modern variants. Due to technical limitations, most previous studies that used serial TEM recorded relatively(More)
The use of cryoEM and three-dimensional image reconstruction is becoming increasingly common. Our vision for this technique is to provide a straightforward manner in which users can proceed from raw data to a reliable 3D reconstruction through a pipeline that both facilitates management of the processing steps and makes the results at each step more(More)
The capsids of mature retroviruses perform the essential function of organizing the viral genome for efficient replication. These capsids are modeled as fullerene structures composed of closed hexameric arrays of the viral CA protein, but a high-resolution structure of the lattice has remained elusive. A three-dimensional map of two-dimensional crystals of(More)
The water-selective pathway through the aquaporin-1 membrane channel has been visualized by fitting an atomic model to a 3.7-A resolution three-dimensional density map. This map was determined by analyzing images and electron diffraction patterns of lipid-reconstituted two-dimensional crystals of aquaporin-1 preserved in vitrified buffer in the absence of(More)
Aquaporins (AQP) are members of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) superfamily of integral membrane proteins and facilitate water transport in various eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The archetypal aquaporin AQP1 is a partly glycosylated water-selective channel that is widely expressed in the plasma membranes of several water-permeable epithelial and endothelial(More)
Electron tomography has become a uniquely powerful tool for investigating the structures of individual cells, viruses, and macromolecules. Data collection is, however, time consuming and requires expensive instruments. To optimize productivity, we have incorporated one of the existing tilt-series acquisition programs, UCSF Tomo, into the well-developed(More)
The contrast observed in images of frozen-hydrated biological specimens prepared for electron cryo-microscopy falls significantly short of theoretical predictions. In addition to limits imposed by the current instrumentation, it is widely acknowledged that motion of the specimen during its exposure to the electron beam leads to significant blurring in the(More)
Low-dose images obtained by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) are often affected by blurring caused by sample motion during electron beam exposure, degrading signal especially at high resolution. We show here that we can align frames of movies, recorded with a direct electron detector during beam exposure of rotavirus double-layered particles, thereby(More)
One of the goals in developing our automated electron microscopy data acquisition system, Leginon, was to improve both the ease of use and the throughput of the process of acquiring low dose images of macromolecular specimens embedded in vitreous ice. In this article, we demonstrate the potential of the Leginon system for high-throughput data acquisition by(More)