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We report here on the current state of our efforts in automated molecular microscopy. Our primary automated data acquisition software system, Leginon, has been completely redesigned over the past two years. The new distributed system has been developed using the Python programming language and is compatible with both Linux and Windows operating systems. The(More)
The contrast observed in images of frozen-hydrated biological specimens prepared for electron cryo-microscopy falls significantly short of theoretical predictions. In addition to limits imposed by the current instrumentation, it is widely acknowledged that motion of the specimen during its exposure to the electron beam leads to significant blurring in the(More)
The analysis of microcircuitry (the connectivity at the level of individual neuronal processes and synapses), which is indispensable for our understanding of brain function, is based on serial transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or one of its modern variants. Due to technical limitations, most previous studies that used serial TEM recorded relatively(More)
Aquaporins (AQP) are members of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) superfamily of integral membrane proteins and facilitate water transport in various eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The archetypal aquaporin AQP1 is a partly glycosylated water-selective channel that is widely expressed in the plasma membranes of several water-permeable epithelial and endothelial(More)
The water-selective pathway through the aquaporin-1 membrane channel has been visualized by fitting an atomic model to a 3.7-A resolution three-dimensional density map. This map was determined by analyzing images and electron diffraction patterns of lipid-reconstituted two-dimensional crystals of aquaporin-1 preserved in vitrified buffer in the absence of(More)
Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) density map of deglycosylated, human erythrocyte aquaporin 1 (AQP1) determined at 4 A resolution in plane and approximately 7 A resolution perpendicular to the bilayer. The map was calculated by analyzing images and electron diffraction patterns recorded from tilted (up to 60 degrees ), ice-embedded, frozen-hydrated(More)
Low-dose images obtained by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) are often affected by blurring caused by sample motion during electron beam exposure, degrading signal especially at high resolution. We show here that we can align frames of movies, recorded with a direct electron detector during beam exposure of rotavirus double-layered particles, thereby(More)
Electron tomography has become a uniquely powerful tool for investigating the structures of individual cells, viruses, and macromolecules. Data collection is, however, time consuming and requires expensive instruments. To optimize productivity, we have incorporated one of the existing tilt-series acquisition programs, UCSF Tomo, into the well-developed(More)
The capsids of mature retroviruses perform the essential function of organizing the viral genome for efficient replication. These capsids are modeled as fullerene structures composed of closed hexameric arrays of the viral CA protein, but a high-resolution structure of the lattice has remained elusive. A three-dimensional map of two-dimensional crystals of(More)
It is becoming routine for cryoEM single particle reconstructions to result in 3D electron density maps with resolutions of approximately 10A, but maps with resolutions of 5A or better are still celebrated events. The electron microscope has a resolving power to better than 2A, and thus should not be a limiting factor; instead the practical limitations in(More)