Learn More
BACKGROUND Treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and behavioural interventions are the main methods to prevent HIV in developing countries. We aimed to assess the effect of these interventions on incidence of HIV-1 and other sexually-transmitted infections. METHODS We randomly allocated all adults living in 18 communities in rural Uganda to(More)
Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents(More)
BACKGROUND In Uganda, there have been encouraging reports of reductions in HIV-1 prevalence but not in incidence, which is the most reliable measure of epidemic trends. We describe HIV-1 incidence and prevalence trends in a rural population-based cohort between 1989 and 1999. METHODS We surveyed the adult population of 15 neighbouring villages for HIV-1(More)
The effect of HIV-1 on other infectious diseases in Africa is an increasing public health concern. In this review, we describe the role that three major infectious diseases--malaria, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis--have had in the HIV-1 epidemic. The high prevalence of untreated STD infections has been a major factor facilitating the(More)
Standards of care provided to volunteers in HIV prevention research in developing countries are evolving. Inconsistency in standards, particularly within a research network highlights the need to balance volunteers' health and wellness with the efficient conduct of research. Ten research centers (RC's) in East and Southern Africa affiliated with the(More)
In individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio is often recognized as a quantitative outcome that reflects the critical role of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis or disease progression. Our work aimed to first establish the dynamics and clinical relevance of CD4:CD8 ratio in a cohort of(More)
STUDY QUESTION Do injectable and oral contraceptives increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in women? SUMMARY ANSWER After adjusting for confounders, evidence of a significantly increased risk of HIV remained for women using injectable depo-medroxyprogesterone (DMPA) (hazard ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (1.06-2.08))(More)
A process evaluation was conducted to evaluate four channels (drama, video, community educators and leaflets) used in a community-based IEC (Information, Education and Communication) HIV/AIDS intervention in rural Uganda. Semi-structured interviews (n = 37) and focus groups (n = 3) were held with community members working as field staff. In addition, two(More)
BACKGROUND Innovative prevention strategies for HIV-1 transmission are urgently needed. PRO2000 vaginal gel was efficacious against HIV-1 transmission in studies in macaques; we aimed to assess efficacy and safety of 2% and 0·5% PRO2000 gels against vaginal HIV-1 transmission in women in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS Microbicides Development Programme 301(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical laboratory reference intervals have not been established in many African countries, and non-local intervals are commonly used in clinical trials to screen and monitor adverse events (AEs) among African participants. Using laboratory reference intervals derived from other populations excludes potential trial volunteers in Africa and makes(More)