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OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of transmission of HIV-1 within married couples in rural Uganda according to the sero-status of the partners. DESIGN Estimation of HIV incidence rates for 2200 adults in a population cohort followed for 7 years comparing male-to-female with female-to-male transmission and sero-discordant with concordant sero-negative(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and behavioural interventions are the main methods to prevent HIV in developing countries. We aimed to assess the effect of these interventions on incidence of HIV-1 and other sexually-transmitted infections. METHODS We randomly allocated all adults living in 18 communities in rural Uganda to(More)
The mortality in 15 villages in South-West Uganda was studied in relation to HIV infection. After a population census, serum samples were tested for antibodies to HIV-1. Deaths were ascertained over 2 years. Unequivocal HIV-1 serology results were available for 9389 individuals. The prevalence of infection was 4.8% for all ages and 8.2% for adults (aged 13(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the association between change of residence and HIV-1 serostatus in a rural Ugandan population. DESIGN A longitudinal cohort study. METHODS As part of the annual surveillance of a population cohort of approximately 10,000 individuals in a rural subcounty of southwest Uganda, information has been collected for all adults on change of(More)
A 19 activity extracurricular school-based AIDS education programme lasting 1 year was conducted in rural southwestern Uganda using specially trained teachers, and was evaluated using mutually supportive quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 1274 students from 20 intervention schools and 803 students from 11 control schools completed(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence of and risk factors for HIV acquisition in a cohort of HIV-uninfected partners from HIV discordant couples in Masaka, Uganda, and to establish its suitability for HIV vaccine trials. METHODS HIV-uninfected adults living in HIV discordant couple relationships were enrolled and followed for 2 years. Interviews, medical(More)
BACKGROUND In Uganda, there have been encouraging reports of reductions in HIV-1 prevalence but not in incidence, which is the most reliable measure of epidemic trends. We describe HIV-1 incidence and prevalence trends in a rural population-based cohort between 1989 and 1999. METHODS We surveyed the adult population of 15 neighbouring villages for HIV-1(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and HIV sero-positivity in a rural Ugandan population. METHODS The adult population residing in a cluster of 15 neighbouring villages has been kept under epidemiological surveillance for HIV infection using annual censuses and sero-surveys since 1989. At the eighth annual survey all(More)
OBJECTIVE Changing behaviour is an important method for preventing HIV infection. We examined why a community randomized trial of a behavioural intervention found no significant effect of this on HIV incidence in rural Uganda. DESIGN An individual-level analysis of a community randomized trial. METHODS All sexually active, initially HIV-seronegative(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess bias in estimates of STD prevalence in population based surveys resulting from diagnostic error and selection bias. To evaluate the effects of such biases on STD prevalence estimates from three community randomised trials of STD treatment for HIV prevention in Masaka and Rakai, Uganda and Mwanza, Tanzania. METHODS Age and sex(More)