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Harmful conditions including heat shock, oxidative stress, UV, and so forth cause programmed cell death, whose triggering requires activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK. High levels of Hsp72, a heat-inducible member of Hsp70 family, protect cells against a variety of stresses by a mechanism that is unclear at present. Here we report that elevated(More)
Various stresses activate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which is involved in the regulation of many aspects of cellular physiology, including apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to UV irradiation, heat shock causes little or no stimulation of the JNK-activating kinase SEK1, while knocking out the SEK1 gene completely blocks heat-induced JNK(More)
In mammalian cells, abnormal proteins that escape proteasome-dependent degradation form small aggregates that can be transported into a centrosome-associated structure, called an aggresome. Here we demonstrate that in yeast a single aggregate formed by the huntingtin exon 1 with an expanded polyglutamine domain (103QP) represents a bona fide aggresome that(More)
Pretreatment with mild heat shock is known to protect cells from severe stress (acquired thermotolerance). Here we addressed the mechanism of this phenomenon by using primary human fibroblasts. Severe heat shock (45 degrees C, 75 min) of the fibroblasts caused cell death displaying morphological characteristics of apoptosis; however, it was caspase(More)
Cellular stress can trigger a process of self-destruction known as apoptosis. Cells can also respond to stress by adaptive changes that increase their ability to tolerate normally lethal conditions. Expression of the major heat-inducible protein hsp70 protects cells from heat-induced apoptosis. hsp70 has been reported to act in some situations upstream or(More)
The cause of Huntington's disease is expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) domain in huntingtin, which makes this protein both neurotoxic and aggregation prone. Here we developed the first yeast model, which establishes a direct link between aggregation of expanded polyQ domain and its cytotoxicity. Our data indicated that deficiencies in molecular chaperones(More)
Inhibition of the major cytosolic protease, proteasome, has been reported to induce programmed cell death in several cell lines, while with other lines, similar inhibition blocked apoptosis triggered by a variety of harmful treatments. To elucidate the mechanism of pro- and antiapoptotic action of proteasome inhibitors, their effects on U937 lymphoid and(More)
Polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD), are caused by expansion of polyQ-encoding repeats within otherwise unrelated gene products. In polyQ diseases, the pathology and death of affected neurons are associated with the accumulation of mutant proteins in insoluble aggregates. Several studies implicate polyQ-dependent aggregation(More)
Cell protection from stresses by the major heat shock protein Hsp72 was previously attributed to its ability to prevent aggregation and to accelerate refolding of damaged proteins. This repair function of Hsp72 may play an important role in cell survival after extremely harsh protein damaging treatments leading to necrotic cell death. On the other hand,(More)
he cause of Huntington's disease is expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) domain in huntingtin, which makes this protein both neurotoxic and aggregation prone. Here we developed the first yeast model, which establishes a direct link between aggregation of expanded polyQ domain and its cytotoxicity. Our data indicated that deficiencies in molecular chaperones(More)