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Galectin-3 protein is critical to the development of liver fibrosis because galectin-3 null mice have attenuated fibrosis after liver injury. Therefore, we examined the ability of novel complex carbohydrate galectin inhibitors to treat toxin-induced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injections with thioacetamide (TAA)(More)
Mendez and colleagues reported the identification of a Y chromosome haplotype (the A00 lineage) that lies at the basal position of the Y chromosome phylogenetic tree. Incorporating this haplotype, the authors estimated the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for the Y tree to be 338,000 years ago (95% CI=237,000-581,000). Such an extraordinarily(More)
Several authors have proposed haplotype motifs based on site variants at the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) to trace the genealogies of Jewish people. Here, we analyzed their main approaches and test the feasibility of adopting motifs as ancestry markers through construction of a large database of(More)
gal-1 (galectin-1) mediates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, essentially by interacting with beta-galactoside-containing glycans of cell-surface glycoconjugates. Although most structural studies with gal-1 have investigated its binding to simple carbohydrates, in particular lactose and N-acetyl-lactosamine, this view is limited, because(More)
Galectins are a sub-family of lectins, defined by their highly conserved beta-sandwich structures and ability to bind to beta-galactosides, like Gal beta1-4 Glc (lactose). Here, we used (15)N-(1)H HSQC and pulse field gradient (PFG) NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate that galectin-1 (gal-1) binds to the relatively large galactomannan Davanat, whose backbone is(More)
Glycans comprise perhaps the largest biomass in nature, and more and more glycans are used in a number of applications, including those as pharmaceutical agents in the clinic. However, defining glycan molecular weight distributions during and after their preparation is not always straightforward. Here, we use pulse field gradient (PFG) (1)H NMR(More)
By definition, adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins are known for their ability to bind β-galactosides such as Galβ(1 → 4)Glc (lactose). Indications for affinity of human galectin-1 to α-linked digalactosides pose questions on the interaction profile with such bound ligands and selection of the galactose moiety for CH-π stacking. These issues are resolved(More)
Some complex plant-derived polysaccharides, such as modified citrus pectins and galactomannans, have been shown to have promising anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Most reports propose or claim that these effects are due to interaction of the polysaccharides with galectins because the polysaccharides contain galactose-containing side chains that(More)
Galectins have a highly conserved carbohydrate-binding domain to which a variety of galactose-containing saccharides, both β- and α-galactosides, can interact with varying degrees of affinity. Recently, we demonstrated that the relatively large α(1 → 6)-D-galacto-β(1 → 4)-D-mannan (Davanat) binds galectin-1 (gal-1) primarily at an alternative(More)
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multifunctional lectin, unique to galectins by the presence of a long N-terminal tail (NT) off of its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Many previous studies have investigated binding of small carbohydrates to its CRD. Here, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((15)N-(1)H heteronuclear single quantum coherence data)(More)