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Cutaneous changes in acromegaly result from excess GH and IGF-1 action on skin cells and adnexae. Skin puffiness due to dermal glycosaminoglycan accumulation and edema are most prominent in the face, hands and feet. Oily skin with large pores, hypertrichosis, and excessive sweating are common features. Pigmented skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and(More)
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and transgenic mice overexpressing pituitary LIF develop Cushing-like syndrome accompanied by reduced prolactin (PRL) expression. Effects of LIF were, therefore, tested on PRL expression in human prolactinomas and normal and tumorous rat lactotrophs. Normal human pituitary(More)
The discovery of somatotropin-release inhibitory factor (SRIF) in hypothalamic extract in 1970 led to the synthesis of the first somatostatin analog octreotide, discovery of five somatostatin receptor subtypes, and development of additional somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) as pharmacotherapy for acromegaly and other neuroendocrine tumors. Long-acting(More)
Anterior pituitary hormone secretion is under tonic suppression by hypothalamic somatostatin signaling through somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTs). Because some hormonal axes are known to be abnormally regulated by ligand-independent constitutively active G protein-coupled receptors, we tested pituitary SSTs for selective constitutive signaling. We(More)
Although acromegaly is a rare disease, the clinical, economic and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) burden is considerable due to the broad spectrum of comorbidities as well as the need for lifelong management. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the past 12 years (1998-2010) to determine the benefit of disease control (defined as a(More)
Cushing disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as a result of an adenoma arising from the ACTH-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary. ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas lead to hypercortisolemia and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Pituitary-directed medications are mostly(More)
Somatotropin-release inhibitory factor (SRIF) is a major regulator of pituitary function, mostly inhibiting hormone secretion and to a lesser extent pituitary cell growth. Five SRIF receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5) are ubiquitously expressed G-protein coupled receptors. In the pituitary, SSTR1, 2, 3 and 5 are expressed, with SSTR2 and SSTR5 predominating. As new(More)
As commonly encountered, pituitary adenomas are invariably benign. We therefore studied protective pituitary proliferative mechanisms. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (Pttg) deletion results in pituitary p21 induction and abrogates tumor development in Rb(+/-)Pttg(-/-) mice. p21 disruption restores attenuated Rb(+/-)Pttg(-/-) pituitary proliferation rates(More)
OBJECTIVE Pituitary targeted pharmacotherapy for Cushing's disease is challenging and ineffective. Unlike octreotide and lanreotide, the multisomatostatin receptor (SST) analog pasireotide that exhibits SST5 greater than SST2 binding affinity offers potential for treating Cushing's disease. Because corticotroph cells express SST5 more abundantly than SST2,(More)
Although pituitary adenomas are usually benign, unique trophic mechanisms restraining cell proliferation are unclear. As GH-secreting adenomas are associated with p53/p21-dependent senescence, we tested mechanisms constraining non-functioning pituitary adenoma growth. Thirty six gonadotroph-derived non-functioning pituitary adenomas all exhibited DNA(More)