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African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei) have a digenetic lifecycle that alternates between the mammalian bloodstream and the tsetse fly vector. In the bloodstream, replicating long slender parasites transform into non-dividing short stumpy forms. Upon transmission into the fly midgut, short stumpy cells differentiate into actively dividing procyclics. A(More)
  • J Vidugiriene, A K Menon
  • 1993
Glycosylated phosphoinositides serve as membrane anchors for numerous eukaryotic cell surface glycoproteins. Recent biochemical and genetic studies indicate that the glycolipids are assembled by sequential addition of components (monosaccharides and phosphoethanolamine) to phosphatidylinositol. The biosynthetic steps are presumed to occur in the ER, but(More)
Controlled cross-linking of IgE-receptor complexes on the surface of rat basophilic leukemia cells and mast cells has allowed a comparison of the lateral mobility and cell triggering activity of monomers, dimers, and higher oligomers of receptors. Addition of a monoclonal anti-IgE(Fc) antibody to IgE-sensitized cells in stoichiometric amounts relative to(More)
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane protein anchors are synthesized from sugar nucleotides and phospholipids in the ER and transferred to newly synthesized proteins destined for the cell surface. The topology of GPI synthesis in the ER was investigated using sealed trypanosome microsomes and the membrane-impermeant probes(More)
The lipid composition of cellular organelles is tailored to suit their specialized tasks. A fundamental transition in the lipid landscape divides the secretory pathway in early and late membrane territories, allowing an adaptation from biogenic to barrier functions. Defending the contrasting features of these territories against erosion by vesicular traffic(More)
The biosynthesis of glycoconjugates such as N-glycoproteins and GPI-anchored proteins in eukaryotes and cell wall peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide in bacteria requires lipid intermediates to be flipped rapidly across the endoplasmic reticulum or bacterial cytoplasmic membrane (so-called biogenic membranes). Rapid flipping is also required to normalize(More)
Polar lipids must flip-flop rapidly across biological membranes to sustain cellular life [1, 2], but flipping is energetically costly [3] and its intrinsic rate is low. To overcome this problem, cells have membrane proteins that function as lipid transporters (flippases) to accelerate flipping to a physiologically relevant rate. Flippases that operate at(More)
Phospholipid (PL) scramblases disrupt the lipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane, externalizing phosphatidylserine to trigger blood coagulation and mark apoptotic cells. Recently, members of the TMEM16 family of Ca(2+)-gated channels have been shown to be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent scrambling. It is however controversial whether they are scramblases or(More)
BACKGROUND A long-standing problem in understanding the mechanism by which the phospholipid bilayer of biological membranes is assembled concerns how phospholipids flip back and forth between the two leaflets of the bilayer. This question is important because phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes typically face the cytosol and deposit newly synthesized(More)
We recently showed that transport of ergosterol from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) to the sterol-enriched PM (plasma membrane) in yeast occurs by a non-vesicular (Sec18p-independent) mechanism that results in the equilibration of sterol pools in the two organelles [Baumann, Sullivan, Ohvo-Rekilä, Simonot, Pottekat, Klaassen, Beh and Menon (2005)(More)