Learn More
African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei) have a digenetic lifecycle that alternates between the mammalian bloodstream and the tsetse fly vector. In the bloodstream, replicating long slender parasites transform into non-dividing short stumpy forms. Upon transmission into the fly midgut, short stumpy cells differentiate into actively dividing procyclics. A(More)
Glycosylated phosphoinositides serve as membrane anchors for numerous eukaryotic cell surface glycoproteins. Recent biochemical and genetic studies indicate that the glycolipids are assembled by sequential addition of components (monosaccharides and phosphoethanolamine) to phosphatidylinositol. The biosynthetic steps are presumed to occur in the ER, but(More)
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane protein anchors are synthesized from sugar nucleotides and phospholipids in the ER and transferred to newly synthesized proteins destined for the cell surface. The topology of GPI synthesis in the ER was investigated using sealed trypanosome microsomes and the membrane-impermeant probes(More)
The lipid composition of cellular organelles is tailored to suit their specialized tasks. A fundamental transition in the lipid landscape divides the secretory pathway in early and late membrane territories, allowing an adaptation from biogenic to barrier functions. Defending the contrasting features of these territories against erosion by vesicular traffic(More)
Polar lipids must flip-flop rapidly across biological membranes to sustain cellular life [1, 2], but flipping is energetically costly [3] and its intrinsic rate is low. To overcome this problem, cells have membrane proteins that function as lipid transporters (flippases) to accelerate flipping to a physiologically relevant rate. Flippases that operate at(More)
Phospholipid (PL) scramblases disrupt the lipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane, externalizing phosphatidylserine to trigger blood coagulation and mark apoptotic cells. Recently, members of the TMEM16 family of Ca(2+)-gated channels have been shown to be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent scrambling. It is however controversial whether they are scramblases or(More)
BACKGROUND A long-standing problem in understanding the mechanism by which the phospholipid bilayer of biological membranes is assembled concerns how phospholipids flip back and forth between the two leaflets of the bilayer. This question is important because phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes typically face the cytosol and deposit newly synthesized(More)
Controlled cross-linking of IgE-receptor complexes on the surface of rat basophilic leukemia cells and mast cells has allowed a comparison of the lateral mobility and cell triggering activity of monomers, dimers, and higher oligomers of receptors. Addition of a monoclonal anti-IgE(Fc) antibody to IgE-sensitized cells in stoichiometric amounts relative to(More)
We examined the distribution of small oligomers of IgE bound to rat basophilic leukemia cells using fluorescence microscopy. The oligomers were seen to cluster into visible patches on the cell surface at 4 degrees C; at higher temperatures internalization also was observed. In contrast, cells labeled with IgE monomers remained predominantly ring-stained.(More)
Sterol traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM) is a fundamental cellular process that occurs by a poorly understood non-vesicular mechanism. We identified a novel, evolutionarily diverse family of ER membrane proteins with StART-like lipid transfer domains and studied them in yeast. StART-like domains from Ysp2p and its(More)