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BACKGROUND Cisplatin resistance has been mainly associated with decreased cellular accumulation and increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels. ATP is known to increase the membrane permeability of cells and to decrease intracellular GSH levels. Our study aimed at using extracellular ATP to sensitize ovarian carcinoma cells towards cisplatin. (More)
Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is a collagenase, which aids tumor growth and invasion by digesting the extracellular matrix surrounding the tumor tissue. Our study examined MMP2 expression in various stages of melanoma progression and tested the prognostic significance of MMP2 expression. We also analyzed the correlation between p-Akt status and MMP2(More)
Metastatic melanoma is notorious for its immune evasion and resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The recent success of ipilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), in increasing the median survival time and stabilizing the disease progression renewed, hopes in treatment for melanoma. Currently,(More)
Rapamycin, a widely used immunosuppressive drug, has been shown to interfere with the function of dendritic cells (DCs), antigen-presenting cells contributing to the initiation of primary immune responses and the establishment of immunological memory. DC function is governed by the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), which is activated by bacterial(More)
SCOPE Enniatin A, a peptide antibiotic and common food contaminant, triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Even though lacking mitochondria, erythrocytes may similarly undergo suicidal cell death or eryptosis. Eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling. Triggers of phospholipid scrambling include energy(More)
The oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) is activated by WNK (with no K kinases) and in turn stimulates the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) and the furosemide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC), thus contributing to transport and cell volume regulation. Little is known about extrarenal functions of OSR1. The present study analyzed(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells decisive in primary immune responses and establishment of immunological memory. They are activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which lead to activation of Na+/H+ exchanger activity, cell swelling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and migration. The effects require functional(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs), antigen-presenting cells that are able to initiate primary immune responses and to establish immunological memory, are activated by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which leads to cell swelling, triggering ROS formation and stimulating migration. The function of DCs is regulated by the phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase(More)
Glucocorticoids regulate the function of dendritic cells (DCs), antigen-presenting cells linking innate and adaptive immunity. Glucocorticoids influence the function of other cell types by modulating the activity of the Na(+)/H(+)exchanger (NHE), a carrier involved in the regulation of cytosolic pH and cell volume. The present study explored whether(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated upon energy depletion and serves to restore energy balance by stimulating energy production and limiting energy utilization. Specifically, it enhances cellular glucose uptake by stimulating GLUT and SGLT1 and glucose utilization by stimulating glycolysis. During O(2) deficiency glycolytic degradation of(More)