Anand P. Chokkalingam

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common systemic autoimmune disease, affecting approximately 1% of the adult population worldwide, with an estimated heritability of 60%. To identify genes involved in RA susceptibility, we investigated the association between putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RA among white individuals by(More)
The minor allele of the R620W missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs2476601) in the hematopoietic-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase gene, PTPN22, has been associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These genetic data, combined with biochemical evidence that this SNP affects PTPN22 function, suggest that(More)
Established guidelines for causal inference in epidemiological studies may be inappropriate for genetic associations. A consensus process was used to develop guidance criteria for assessing cumulative epidemiologic evidence in genetic associations. A proposed semi-quantitative index assigns three levels for the amount of evidence, extent of replication, and(More)
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among men in most western populations, and it is the second leading cause of cancer death among U.S. men. Despite its high morbidity, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Advancing age, race, and a family history of prostate cancer are the only established risk factors. Many putative(More)
PURPOSE Obesity has been implicated in the etiology of benign and malignant prostatic growth due to its influence on metabolic and endocrine changes. Because obesity is an important determinant of serum levels of insulin and leptin (the product of the obesity gene Ob), we investigated the role of obesity and serum levels of insulin and leptin in benign(More)
It has been suggested that the activity of the steroid 5alpha-reductase type II enzyme (encoded by the SRD5A2 gene) may be associated with prostate cancer risk and that population differences in this enzyme's activity may account for part of the substantial racial/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer risk. To provide etiological clues, we evaluated the(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in South Korea are relatively low, but rising steadily. METHODS We examined age-standardized incidence and mortality trends of prostate cancer in South Korea to gain further insight into prostate cancer etiology. RESULTS Although prostate cancer incidence has been low (7.9 per 100,000 man-years),(More)
Circadian genes influence a variety of biological processes that are important in prostate tumorigenesis including metabolism. To determine if variants in circadian genes alter prostate cancer risk, we genotyped five variants in five circadian genes in a population-based case-control study conducted in China (187 cases and 242 controls). These variants(More)
BACKGROUND Pathologically, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not considered a precursor for prostate carcinoma. However, because the two conditions share not only a similar hormonal environment within the prostate but also several common risk factors, it is possible that men with BPH may be at increased risk of prostate carcinoma due to these shared(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic(More)