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To enhance the treatment of relations in biomedical ontologies we advance a methodology for providing consistent and unambiguous formal definitions of the relational expressions used in such ontologies in a way designed to assist developers and users in avoiding errors in coding and annotation. The resulting Relation Ontology can promote interoperability of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and impact on mortality of delays in initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy from initial onset of recurrent/persistent hypotension of septic shock. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study performed between July 1989 and June 2004. SETTING Fourteen intensive care units (four medical, four surgical, six mixed(More)
To provide an update to “Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012”. A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal(More)
OBJECTIVE Our goal was to determine the impact of the initiation of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on survival to hospital discharge of patients with septic shock. METHODS The appropriateness of initial antimicrobial therapy, the clinical infection site, and relevant pathogens were retrospectively determined for 5,715 patients with septic shock in(More)
Age-related microstructural changes in brain white matter can be studied by utilizing indices derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA). The objective of this study is to examine alterations in FA and ADC by employing exploratory voxel-based analysis (VBA) and region(s) of interest(More)
OBJECTIVES Many groups are developing computer-interpretable clinical guidelines (CIGs) for use during clinical encounters. CIGs use "Task-Network Models" for representation but differ in their approaches to addressing particular modeling challenges. We have studied similarities and differences between CIGs in order to identify issues that must be resolved(More)
The increasing need for advanced ontology-based knowledge management in the life sciences is generally being acknowledged but, up until now, the development of biological ontologies lacks adherence to foundational principles of ontology design. This is particularly true of so-called upper-level ontologies such as the GENIA ontology which covers biological(More)
CONTEXT Between March and July 2009, the largest number of confirmed cases of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection occurred in North America. OBJECTIVE To describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of critically ill patients in Canada with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A prospective observational study of 168(More)
BACKGROUND In the context of 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1) virus infection (pandemic H1N1 influenza), identifying correlates of the severity of disease is critical to guiding the implementation of antiviral strategies, prioritization of vaccination efforts and planning of health infrastructure. The objective of this study was to identify factors correlated(More)