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Evolution of microstructure morphologies and grain orientations of Cu-Cu bonded wafers during bonding and annealing were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The bonded Cu grain structure reaches steady state after post-bonding anneal. An abnormal (220) grain growth was observed during the initial(More)
The precursor formamide 1 was employed instead of the monomer 2 because isocyanides are relatively unstable in air at room temperature. [19] a) [20] Molecular modeling shows that (in common with the phenyl benzo-ate compounds previously described [17]) an angle exists between the planar phenoxy and TTF ring systems. [21] The oxidation of the polymer was(More)
A novel test structure for contact resistance measurement of bonded copper interconnects in three-dimensional (3-D) integration technology is proposed and fabricated. This test structure requires a simple fabrication process and eliminates the possibility of measurement errors due to misalignment during bonding. Specific contact resistances of bonding(More)
Knowledge on variations in stomata is useful in reflecting leaf physiological characteristics of CO2 uptake and water transpiration, and predicting the responses of plants to future climate change. Stomatal density and number of stomatal rows (current-year, 1- and 2-year-old needles) in relation to tree age (ranging from 25 to 320 years old), elevation(More)
The microstructure morphologies of copper bonded wafers were examined by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Morphologies of non-distinct, zigzag and distinct interfaces in the bonded layer are observed. A strong relationship between the roughness of surfaces and the individual steps in bonding initiation was(More)
Bonded copper interconnects were stressed with current to measure the specific contact resistance. For bonded copper interconnects without a pre-bonding HCl clean, the corresponding specific contact resistance did not change while increasing the stress current. However, for some interconnects with the pre-bonding HCl clean, an abnormal contact resistance(More)
Low-temperature direct Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) oxide to thermal oxide bonding is described. The PECVD oxide is densified at 350 o C and chemical-mechanically polished to obtain reasonably smooth surface for bonding. The PECVD oxide wafer is bonded to the thermal oxide wafer at room temperature after piranha clean that leaves the(More)
The main objective of this research project is to demonstrate functional three-dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits based on the stacking of silicon active layers. The bulk of the work focuses on process technology development for silicon active layers stacking using low temperature wafer bonding and wafer thinning. Two types of low temperature wafer(More)
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