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In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological(More)
BACKGROUND The evidence that heat waves can result in both increased deaths and illness is substantial, and concern over this issue is rising because of climate change. Adverse health impacts from heat waves can be avoided, and epidemiologic studies have identified specific population and community characteristics that mark vulnerability to heat waves. (More)
A large portion of current epidemiologic research is based on methodologic individualism: the notion that the distribution of health and disease in populations can be explained exclusively in terms of the characteristics of individuals. The present paper discusses the need to include group- or macro-level variables in epidemiologic studies, thus(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate availability of healthy foods may be a barrier to achieving recommended diets. OBJECTIVE The objective was to study the association between the directly measured availability of healthy foods and diet quality. DESIGN We conducted a cross-sectional study of 759 participants from the Baltimore site of the Multi-Ethnic Study of(More)
BACKGROUND Most previous studies investigating the association between ethnicity and hypertension focused on differences between African Americans and whites and did not include other racial/ethnic groups such as Chinese or Hispanics. METHODS We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based study of 6814 adults(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association of socioeconomic factors with progression of carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT) in middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional associations of IMT with socioeconomic status (SES) have been demonstrated in middle-aged cohorts. It is unclear whether these factors are associated with progression of IMT. METHODS AND RESULTS We(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic inflammation is linked to cardiovascular risk, but the influence of persistent pathogens, which are conventionally dichotomously categorized, on circulating levels of inflammatory markers is not clear. Antibody levels of pathogens have not been examined in relation to inflammation. METHODS Using data from a subsample of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between optimism/pessimism and concentrations of seven inflammation and hemostasis markers. Optimism and pessimism are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality and progression; however, the biological mechanism remains unclear. METHODS This cross-sectional study used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of(More)
BACKGROUND Low socioeconomic position is known to be associated with cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Reasons for these associations remain a topic of research. Inflammation could be an important mediating mechanism linking socioeconomic position to cardiovascular risk. METHODS AND RESULTS This cross-sectional study used data from the baseline(More)
It has often been hypothesized that stress and its biological consequences mediate the relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) or minority status and poor cardiovascular disease outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine if daily cortisol patterns, a biomarker of the stress response, differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.(More)