Ana V. Diez-Roux

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In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological(More)
Background: Associations between childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES) and adult levels of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, white blood cell count [WBC], and von Willebrand factor [vWF]) were examined in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort. Methods: A total of 12,681 white and African-American(More)
Over the past few years there has been growing interest in considering factors defined at multiple levels in public health research. Multilevel analysis has emerged as one analytical strategy that may partly address this need, by allowing the simultaneous examination of group-level and individual-level factors. This paper reviews the rationale for using(More)
BACKGROUND The evidence that heat waves can result in both increased deaths and illness is substantial, and concern over this issue is rising because of climate change. Adverse health impacts from heat waves can be avoided, and epidemiologic studies have identified specific population and community characteristics that mark vulnerability to heat waves. (More)
Epidemiology, sociology, and geography have been successful in re-establishing interest in the role of place in shaping health and health inequalities. However, some of the relevant empirical research has relied on rather conventional conceptions of space and place and focused on isolating the "independent" contribution of place-level and individual-level(More)
A large portion of current epidemiologic research is based on methodologic individualism: the notion that the distribution of health and disease in populations can be explained exclusively in terms of the characteristics of individuals. The present paper discusses the need to include group- or macro-level variables in epidemiologic studies, thus(More)
Recent research has suggested that inequality in the distribution of income is associated with increased mortality, even after accounting for average income levels. Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we investigated whether inequality in the distribution of income within US states is related to the prevalence of four(More)
Medicine and epidemiology currently dominate the study of the strong association between socioeconomic status and mortality. Socioeconomic status typically is viewed as a causally irrelevant "confounding variable" or as a less critical variable marking only the beginning of a causal chain in which intervening risk factors are given prominence. Yet the(More)
Few studies have investigated the specific features implicated in neighborhood-health associations. We examined associations between measures of neighborhood problems and neighborhood social cohesion with depression, smoking, drinking, and walking for exercise in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Neighborhoods were characterized(More)
This study investigates the association between self-reported physical and mental health and both perceived racial discrimination and skin color in African American men and women. We used data from the longitudinal coronary artery risk development in young adults study (CARDIA) in African American men and women (n=1722) in the USA. We assessed self-reported(More)