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In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological(More)
BACKGROUND Associations between childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES) and adult levels of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, white blood cell count [WBC], and von Willebrand factor [vWF]) were examined in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort. METHODS A total of 12,681 white and African-American(More)
BACKGROUND The evidence that heat waves can result in both increased deaths and illness is substantial, and concern over this issue is rising because of climate change. Adverse health impacts from heat waves can be avoided, and epidemiologic studies have identified specific population and community characteristics that mark vulnerability to heat waves. (More)
Medicine and epidemiology currently dominate the study of the strong association between socioeconomic status and mortality. Socioeconomic status typically is viewed as a causally irrelevant "confounding variable" or as a less critical variable marking only the beginning of a causal chain in which intervening risk factors are given prominence. Yet the(More)
BACKGROUND Walking distance is an important concept in the fields of transportation and public health. A distance of 0.25 miles is often used as an acceptable walking distance in U.S. research studies. Overall, research on the distance and duration of walking trips for different purposes and across different population groups remains limited. PURPOSE This(More)
BACKGROUND Most previous studies investigating the association between ethnicity and hypertension focused on differences between African Americans and whites and did not include other racial/ethnic groups such as Chinese or Hispanics. METHODS We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based study of 6814 adults(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate availability of healthy foods may be a barrier to achieving recommended diets. OBJECTIVE The objective was to study the association between the directly measured availability of healthy foods and diet quality. DESIGN We conducted a cross-sectional study of 759 participants from the Baltimore site of the Multi-Ethnic Study of(More)
Few studies have investigated the specific features implicated in neighborhood-health associations. We examined associations between measures of neighborhood problems and neighborhood social cohesion with depression, smoking, drinking, and walking for exercise in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Neighborhoods were characterized(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between individual-level and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) across the life course and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS Participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n=12,332) were queried about individual-level SES and residential addresses across(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association of socioeconomic factors with progression of carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT) in middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional associations of IMT with socioeconomic status (SES) have been demonstrated in middle-aged cohorts. It is unclear whether these factors are associated with progression of IMT. METHODS AND RESULTS We(More)