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Spike (S) proteins, the defining projections of the enveloped coronaviruses (CoVs), mediate cell entry by connecting viruses to plasma membrane receptors and by catalyzing subsequent virus-cell membrane fusions. The latter membrane fusion requires an S protein conformational flexibility that is facilitated by proteolytic cleavages. We hypothesized that the(More)
Acetyl phosphate, the intermediate of the AckA-Pta pathway, acts as a global signal in Escherichia coli. Although acetyl phosphate clearly signals through two-component response regulators, it remains unclear whether acetyl phosphate acts as a direct phospho donor or functions through an indirect mechanism. We used two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography(More)
Enveloped viruses enter cells by viral glycoprotein-mediated binding to host cells and subsequent fusion of virus and host cell membranes. For the coronaviruses, viral spike (S) proteins execute these cell entry functions. The S proteins are set apart from other viral and cellular membrane fusion proteins by their extensively palmitoylated(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry, translation, replication, and assembly occur with defined kinetics in distinct subcellular compartments. It is unclear how HCV spatially and temporally regulates these events within the host cell to coordinate its infection. We have developed a single molecule RNA detection assay that facilitates the simultaneous visualization(More)
Acetyl phosphate (acetyl-P) serves critical roles in coenzyme A recycling and ATP synthesis. It is the intermediate of the Pta-AckA pathway that inter-converts acetyl-coenzyme A and acetate. Acetyl-P also can act as a global signal by donating its phosphoryl group to specific two-component response regulators. This ability derives from its capacity to store(More)
Global health is threatened by emerging viral infections, which largely lack effective vaccines or therapies. Targeting host pathways that are exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions. We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK, kinase regulators of the host adaptor proteins AP1 and AP2, are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV)(More)
As a relatively simple virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends extensively on its host to infect, replicate and disseminate. HCV has evolved host interactions that result in a restricted tropism, both in terms of cell type and species. Efforts into identifying and validating HCV-host interactions have been hampered by a limited number of infectious virus(More)
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