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BACKGROUND Surgical conditions contribute significantly to the disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is an apparent neglect of surgical care as a public health intervention to counter this burden. There is increasing enthusiasm to reverse this trend, by promoting essential surgical services at the district hospital, the first point of contact for(More)
BACKGROUND There is a growing recognition that the provision of surgical services in low-income countries is inadequate to the need. While constrained health budgets and health worker shortages have been blamed for the low rates of surgery, there has been little empirical data on the providers of surgery and cost of surgical services in Africa. This study(More)
BACKGROUND Guidelines recommend routine screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high-risk patients, but the strength of evidence supporting these recommendations is unclear. PURPOSE To review the benefits and harms of HCC screening in patients with chronic liver disease. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to(More)
OBJECTIVES The present study examines gender differences in changes in functional status after age 50 and how such differences vary across different age groups. METHODS Data came from the Health and Retirement Study, involving up to six repeated observations of a national sample of Americans older than 50 years of age between 1995 and 2006. We employed(More)
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to expand knowledge of care options for aging populations cross-nationally by examining key individual-level and nation-level predictors of European middle-aged and older adults' preferences for care. DESIGN AND METHODS Drawing on data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and the(More)
BACKGROUND Multimorbidity (multiple co-occurring chronic diseases) is associated with greater likelihood of disability and mortality, above and beyond the risk attributable to individual diseases. This study identifies prevalent multimorbidity patterns and evaluates their association with disability among U.S. older adults. METHODS Prospective cohort(More)
OBJECTIVES Following a person-centered approach, this research aims to depict distinct courses of disability and to ascertain how the probabilities of experiencing these trajectories vary across Black, Hispanic, and White middle-aged and older Americans. METHODS Data came from the 1995-2006 Health and Retirement Study, which involved a national sample of(More)
OBJECTIVE Review the effectiveness of group visits (appointments of multiple patients) on quality of life, function, self-efficacy, utilization, and biophysical outcomes in randomized controlled trials of patients with chronic conditions. METHODS We searched MEDLINE(®), Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to January 2013 for English-language trials of(More)
OBJECTIVE This research focuses on ethnic variations in the intraindividual changes in self-rated health. METHOD Data came from the Health and Retirement Study involving up to 6 repeated observations between 1995 and 2006 of a national sample of 18,486 Americans above 50 years of age. Hierarchical linear models were employed in depicting variations in(More)
OBJECTIVES This research examines intra- and interpersonal differences in multiple chronic conditions reported by Americans aged 51 and older for a period up to 11 years. It focuses on how changes in multimorbidity vary across White, Black, and Mexican Americans. METHODS Data came from 17,517 respondents of the Health and Retirement Study (1995-2006) with(More)