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Reactivation of telomerase has been implicated in human tumorigenesis, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we report the presence of recurrent somatic mutations in the TERT promoter in cancers of the central nervous system (43%), bladder (59%), thyroid (follicular cell-derived, 10%) and skin (melanoma, 29%). In thyroid cancers, the(More)
A high prevalence of the BRAFV600E somatic mutation was recently reported in several series of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). This mutation appears to be particularly prevalent in PTC with a predominantly papillary architecture. Another BRAF mutation (K601E) was detected in a follicular adenoma and in some cases of the follicular variant of PTC. The(More)
Rearrangement of RET proto-oncogene is the major event in the etiopathogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We report a high prevalence of BRAF(V599E) mutation in sporadic PTC and in PTC-derived cell lines. The BRAF(V599E) mutation was detected in 23 of 50 PTC (46%) and in three of four PTC-derived cell lines. The prevalence of the BRAF(V599E)(More)
In sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), KRAS are alternative to BRAF mutations and occur, respectively, in 30 and 10% of cases. Few reports addressed the association between KRAS-BRAF mutations and tumour progression specifically in sporadic microsatellite-stable (MSS) CRC. We screened KRAS and BRAF in 250 MSS primary CRC and 45 lymph node (LN) metastases and(More)
KRAS and BRAF mutations are frequent in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and have the potential to activate proliferation and survival through MAPK/ERK and/or PI3K signalling pathways. Because diet is one of the most important determinants of CRC incidence and progression, we studied the effects of the dietary phytochemicals quercetin (Q), luteolin (L) and(More)
p63, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and CK 14 have been employed in diagnostic pathology as markers of basal, squamous and myoepithelial differentiation in several types of human neoplasms; however, there is scant data on the concurrent expression of these markers in large series of human neoplasms. We analyzed the distribution of these three immunohistochemical(More)
Oxyphil or Hurthle cell tumours of the thyroid are characterised by their consistent excessive number of mitochondria. A recently discovered gene, GRIM-19 has been found to fulfil two roles within the cell: as a member of the interferon-beta and retinoic acid-induced pathway of cell death, and as part of the mitochondrial Complex I assembly. In addition, a(More)
The newly discovered molecular features of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular cells are reviewed, within the frame of the 2004 WHO classification of thyroid tumours, under the following headings: “Follicular carcinoma”, “Papillary carcinoma”, “Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma” and “Hürthle cell tumours”. A particular(More)
BRAF kinase is a downstream target of KRAS and activates the MAPK pathway. These two molecules are prone to mutations in sporadic microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal carcinomas (CRC) and BRAF V600E mutations are inversely associated with oncogenic KRAS mutations. The biological significance of BRAF V600E oncogenic activation is not well established in(More)
Five unrelated patients with a supernumerary chromosome derivative of chromosome 15 are described. The clinical findings in the present series of cases show a gross concordance with the data previously reported in subjects with similar aberrations and allow the delineation of a distinct syndrome. Although undetermined variation in the structure of these(More)