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Inflammation and neurodegeneration coexist in many acute damage and chronic CNS disorders (e.g., stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease). A well characterized animal model of brain damage involves administration of kainic acid, which causes limbic seizure activity and subsequent neuronal death, especially in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and(More)
To define at the molecular biological level the effects of thyroid hormone on brain development we have examined cDNA clones of brain mRNAs and identified several whose expression is altered in hypothyroid animals during the neonatal period. Clones were identified with probes prepared by subtractive or differential hybridization, and those corresponding to(More)
We recently demonstrated that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of mitochondrial gene expression during brain development. To gain further insights into the consequences of this regulation, we have performed functional and structural analysis of brain mitochondria from control and hypothyroid neonatal rats. Flow cytometric analysis showed a(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase originally identified as a regulator of glycogen metabolism but it also plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular functions, including differentiation, cell cycle regulation, and proliferation. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, together with the subventricular zone of the lateral(More)
We have previously shown that thyroid hormone (T(3)) regulates mitochondrial gene expression, morphology and transmembrane potential in the developing brain. Here, we have analysed the effect of thyroid hormone on mitochondrial function in different brain regions. For this purpose we have determined, in control, hypothyroid and T(3)-treated hypothyroid(More)
Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development, and multiple alterations at behavioral, cognitive, cellular, and molecular levels have been described in animals made hypothyroid during development. Here we analyzed the effect of developmental hypothyroidism in the rat on the sensitivity to kainic acid-induced limbic seizures and the expression(More)
Alterations in motor functions are well-characterized features observed in humans and experimental animals subjected to thyroid hormone dysfunctions during development. Here we show that congenitally hypothyroid rats display hyperactivity in the adult life. This phenotype was associated with a decreased content of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1)) mRNA in(More)
Thyroid hormone regulates the expression of G protein in tissues such as fat and heart. In the brain, very little information is available relative to the regulation by thyroid hormone of G proteins. Here, we show that the expression of the Galphai1 gene is induced by thyroid hormones in the rat cerebellum during development. Hence, the levels of Galphai1(More)
Thyroid hormone plays a critical role in mitochondrial biogenesis in two areas of the developing brain, the cerebral cortex and the striatum. Here we analyzed, in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, the effect of hypothyroidism on the biogenesis in free and synaptosomal mitochondria by analyzing, in isolated mitochondria, the activity of respiratory(More)
Kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a well-characterized model of excitotoxic neuronal injury. Excitotoxicity results from activation of specific glutamate receptors, with resultant elevation of intracellular Ca(2+). The CA1 and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus are especially vulnerable to KA, and this pattern of neuronal injury resembles(More)