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To initiate adaptative cytotoxic immune responses, proteolytic peptides derived from phagocytosed antigens are presented by dendritic cells (DCs) to CD8+ T lymphocytes through a process called antigen "crosspresentation." The partial degradation of antigens mediated by lysosomal proteases in an acidic environment must be tightly controlled to prevent(More)
Intracellular Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR7, and TLR9 localize in endosomes and recognize single-stranded RNA and nucleotides from viruses and bacteria. This interaction induces their conformational changes resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulation of cell surface molecules. TLR9 requires a proteolytic cleavage for its(More)
Engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) by surface-tethered antigens (Ag) leads to formation of a synapse that promotes Ag uptake for presentation onto major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules. We have highlighted the membrane trafficking events and associated molecular mechanisms involved in Ag extraction and processing at the B cell(More)
Cell migration has two opposite faces: although necessary for physiological processes such as immune responses, it can also have detrimental effects by enabling metastatic cells to invade new organs. In vivo, migration occurs in complex environments and often requires a high cellular deformability, a property limited by the cell nucleus. Here we show that(More)
Antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules relies on the action of endocytic proteases, which are differentially expressed in antigen-presenting cells and are regulated by different components of the immune system. Endocytic enzymes process and convert exogenous antigens into peptidic determinants capable of interaction with MHC class II molecules.(More)
Here, we describe a new approach designed to monitor the proteolytic activity of maturing phagosomes in live antigen-presenting cells. We find that an ingested particle sequentially encounters distinct protease activities during phagosomal maturation. Incorporation of active proteases into the phagosome of the macrophage cell line J774 indicates that(More)
During trafficking through tissues, T cells fine-tune their motility to balance the extent and duration of cell-surface contacts versus the need to traverse an entire organ. Here we show that in vivo, myosin IIA-deficient T cells had a triad of defects, including overadherence to high-endothelial venules, less interstitial migration and inefficient(More)
The immune synapse (IS) forms as dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells interact in lymph nodes during initiation of adaptive immunity. Factors that contribute to the formation and maintenance of IS stability and function have been mostly studied in T cells, whereas little is known about events occurring during synapse formation in DCs. Here, we show that DCs(More)
Before a class II molecule can be loaded with antigenic material and reach the surface to engage CD4+ T cells, its chaperone, the class II-associated invariant chain (Ii), is degraded in a stepwise fashion by proteases in endocytic compartments. We have dissected the role of cathepsin S (CatS) in the trafficking and maturation of class II molecules by(More)
Upon antigen recognition, T cells form either static (synapses) or migratory (kinapses) contacts with antigen-presenting cells. Addressing whether synapses and kinapses result in distinct T cell receptor (TCR) signals has been hampered by the inability to simultaneously assess T cell phenotype and behavior. Here, we introduced dynamic in situ cytometry(More)