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Colombia's PACES program provided over 125,000 pupils from poor neighborhoods with vouchers that covered approximately half the cost of private secondary school. Vouchers were renewable annually based on satisfactory performance. Since many vouchers were allocated by lottery, we use differences in outcomes between lottery winners and losers to assess(More)
Colombia's PACES program provided over 125,000 poor children with vouchers that covered half the cost of private secondary school. The vouchers were renewable annually conditional on adequate academic progress. Since many vouchers were assigned by lottery, program effects can reliably be assessed by comparing lottery winners and losers. Estimates using(More)
Teleosts lack a hypophyseal portal system and hence neurohormones are carried by nerve fibers from the preoptic region to the pituitary. The various cell types in the teleost pituitary are organized in discrete domains. Fish possess two gonadotropins (GtH) similar to FSH and LH in other vertebrates; they are heterodimeric hormones that consist of a common(More)
The cardiac ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel (RyR2) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) comprises a macromolecular complex that includes a kinase and two phosphatases that are bound to the channel via targeting proteins. We previously found that the RyR2 is protein kinase A (PKA)-hyperphosphorylated in end-stage human heart failure. Because heart(More)
Kisspeptins, the peptide products of the Kiss1 gene, were initially identified in mammals as ligands of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54; also termed Kiss1R) with ability to suppress tumor metastasis. In late 2003, the indispensable role of kisspeptins in the control of reproductive function was disclosed by the seminal observations that humans and(More)
Ca2+ sparks, the elementary events underlying excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, occur when sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels open. They are activated locally by Ca2+ influx through sarcolemmal (SL) Ca2+ channels. By measuring the probability of spark occurrence under conditions in which their probability of occurrence is low, we address(More)
Epac is a guanine nucleotide exchange protein that is directly activated by cAMP, but whose cardiac cellular functions remain unclear. It is important to understand cardiac Epac signaling, because it is activated in parallel to classical cAMP-dependent signaling via protein kinase A. In addition to activating contraction, Ca(2+) is a key cardiac(More)
The Exchange Protein directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC) participates to the pathological signaling of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, in which the role of Ca(2+) entry through the Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) channels begin to be appreciated. Here we studied whether EPAC activation could influence the activity and/or expression of(More)
Cannabinoids are neuroprotective in models of neurodegenerative dementias. Their effects are mostly mediated through CB1 and CB2 receptor-dependent modulation of excitotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and other processes. We tested the effects of Sativex®, a mixture of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, acting on both CB1 and CB2 receptors,(More)
The adjustment of Ca(2+) entry in cardiac cells is critical to the generation of the force necessary for the myocardium to meet the physiological needs of the body. In this review, we present the concept that Ca(2+) can promote its own entry through Ca(2+) channels by different mechanisms. We refer to it under the general term of 'Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)(More)