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Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages play critical roles in diverse chronic diseases, including parasite infections, cancer, and allergic responses. However, little is known about the acquisition and maintenance of their phenotype. We report that M2-macrophage marker genes are epigenetically regulated by reciprocal changes in histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4)(More)
We previously demonstrated that jarastatin (JT), a new disintegrin from Bothrops jararaca venom, altered actin dynamics in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and inhibited cell migration in vivo and in vitro (14). In this study, we evaluated the effects of JT and two other monomeric disintegrins, kistrin (KR) and flavoridin (FL), on PMN chemotaxis(More)
A new disintegrin, an RGD-containing peptide of 6 kDa called jarastatin, was purified from Bothrops jararaca venom. It is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, and thrombin. The effect of jarastatin on neutrophil migration in vivo and in vitro and on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics of these cells was investigated. Incubation(More)
Macrophages play a pivotal role in innate and acquired immune responses to Schistosoma mansoni. Classical (M1) or alternative (M2) activation states of these cells further delineate their roles in tissue damage through innate immunity or fibrotic remodeling, respectively. In the present study, we addressed the following question: Does systemic Th2-type(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and severe fibrosis, resulting in a steady worsening of lung function and gas exchange. Because idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a generally progressive disorder with highly heterogeneous disease progression, we classified affected patients as either rapid or slow progressors over the(More)
In this review we focus on the role of chemokines in discreet areas of innate immunity and demonstrate that chemokines are key participants to not only the early inflammatory response to a foreign agent, but important to the sustained immune reaction. Our studies support the concept that a concerted and interactive innate and acquired immune reaction is key(More)
Extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion receptors (integrins) play essential roles in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Interactions of integrins with the extracellular matrix proteins lead to phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins such as focal adhesion kinase, activating different signaling pathways responsible for the(More)
The effects of jarastatin (JT), a monomeric RGD-disintegrin, were compared with those of the heterodimeric MLD-disintegrin, EC3, on human neutrophil activation and functions. Both disintegrins inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by fMet-Leu-Phe and were also potent chemotactic agents. These effects were accompanied by an increase in actin(More)
The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophage (M phi) fungicidal activity against Sporothrix schenckii, and the relationship between NO susceptibility and the differential virulence of conidia and yeast cells, were investigated. Confirming a previously reported correlation between the length of time in culture and virulence of S. schenckii, conidia(More)