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Incomplete understanding of three aspects of the climate system—equilibrium climate sensitivity, rate of ocean heat uptake and historical aerosol forcing—and the physical processes underlying them lead to uncertainties in our assessment of the global-mean temperature evolution in the twenty-first century 1,2 10 , but extends towards larger warming than(More)
Specific chemicals can prime the plant immune system for augmented defense. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a priming agent that provides broad-spectrum disease protection. However, BABA also suppresses plant growth when applied in high doses, which has hampered its application as a crop defense activator. Here we describe a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana(More)
In higher eukaryotes, induced resistance associates with acquisition of a priming state of the cells for a more effective activation of innate immunity; however, the nature of the components for mounting this type of immunological memory is not well known. We identified an extracellular subtilase from Arabidopsis, SBT3.3, the overexpression of which(More)
Priming of defense increases the responsiveness of the plant immune system and can provide broad-spectrum protection against disease. Recent evidence suggests that priming of defense can be inherited epigenetically to following generations. However, the mechanisms of long-lasting defense priming within one generation remains poorly understood. Here, we have(More)
RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an epigenetic control mechanism driven by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that influence gene function. In plants, little is known of the involvement of the RdDM pathway in regulating traits related to immune responses. In a genetic screen designed to reveal factors regulating immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana, we(More)
Plant regulatory circuits coordinating nuclear and plastid gene expression have evolved in response to external stimuli. RNA editing is one of such control mechanisms. We determined the Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded homeodomain-containing protein OCP3 is incorporated into the chloroplast, and contributes to control over the extent of ndhB transcript editing.(More)
We consider the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet (with anisotropy λ) on a square lattice using a Chern-Simons (or Wigner-Jordan) approach. We show that the Average Field Approximation (AFA) yields a phase diagram with two phases: aNè el state for λ > λ c and a flux phase for λ < λ c separated by a second order transition at λ c < 1. We show(More)