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The human killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) locus comprises two groups of KIR haplotypes, termed A and B. These are present in all human populations but with different relative frequencies, suggesting they have different functional properties that underlie their balancing selection. We studied the genomic organization and functional properties of the(More)
Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are heterogeneous genes encoding molecules that are structurally similar to classical MHC class Ia molecules but with limited tissue distribution and polymorphism. Mammalian class Ib genes have diverse and often uncharacterized functions, and because of their rapid rate of evolution, class Ib phylogeny is difficult(More)
In jawed vertebrates, the heterogeneous nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) gene family encodes molecules structurally similar to classical MHC class Ia (class Ia) but with more limited tissue distribution and lower polymorphism. In mammals, class Ib gene products are involved in stress responses, malignancy and differentiation of intrathymic CD8 T cells.(More)
Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are a family of highly diverse and rapidly evolving genes wherein gene numbers, organization, and expression markedly differ even among closely related species rendering class Ib phylogeny difficult to establish. Whereas among mammals there are few unambiguous class Ib gene orthologs, different amphibian species(More)
Modulating natural killer cell functions in human immunity and reproduction are diverse interactions between the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) of Natural Killer (NK) cells and HLA class I ligands on the surface of tissue cells. Dominant interactions are between KIR2DL1 and the C2 epitope of HLA-C and between KIR2DL2/3 and the C1 epitope of(More)
CD4 and CD8 co-receptors play critical roles in T cell development and activation by interacting both with T cell receptors and MHC molecules. Although homologs of these genes have been identified in many jawed vertebrates, there are still unresolved gaps concerning their evolution and specialization in MHC interaction and T cell function. Using(More)
Chimpanzees have orthologs of the six fixed, functional human MHC class I genes. But, in addition, the chimpanzee has a seventh functional gene, Patr-AL, which is not polymorphic but contributes substantially to population diversity by its presence on only 50% of MHC haplotypes. The ancestral AL gene emerged long before the separation of human and(More)
Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are found in all jawed vertebrates, and their products are hypothesized to be indicators of intracellular stress and malignancy. They may be involved in immune recognition of classical MHC class Ia (class Ia)-low or -negative tumor cells through their interaction with T cell receptors and/or non-T cell inhibitory(More)
CD91, the endocytic receptor for alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), mediates the internalization of certain heat shock proteins (hsps) and the cross-presentation of peptides they chaperone by antigen-presenting cells. The phylogenetic conservation of the immunologically active CD91 ligands, alpha2M and hsps, is consistent with the idea of an ancestral system(More)
In Xenopus as in mammals, gp96 stimulates MHC-restricted cellular immunity against chaperoned minor histocompatibility (H) antigens (Ag). In adult Xenopus, gp96 also elicits peptide-specific effectors against MHC class Ia-negative 15/0 tumors. To determine whether gp96 can generate functionally heterogeneous CD8+ effectors (CTL that kill MHC class Ia+ minor(More)