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In retinal rods, Ca(2+) exerts negative feedback control on cGMP synthesis by guanylate cyclase (GC). This feedback loop was disrupted in mouse rods lacking guanylate cyclase activating proteins GCAP1 and GCAP2 (GCAPs(-/-)). Comparison of the behavior of wild-type and GCAPs(-/-) rods allowed us to investigate the role of the feedback loop in normal rod(More)
In rod photoreceptors, arrestin localizes to the outer segment (OS) in the light and to the inner segment (IS) in the dark. Here, we demonstrate that redistribution of arrestin between these compartments can proceed in ATP-depleted photoreceptors. Translocation of transducin from the IS to the OS also does not require energy, but depletion of ATP or GTP(More)
Efficient single-photon detection by retinal rod photoreceptors requires timely and reproducible deactivation of rhodopsin. Like other G protein-coupled receptors, rhodopsin contains multiple sites for phosphorylation at its COOH-terminal domain. Transgenic and electrophysiological methods were used to functionally dissect the role of the multiple(More)
Visual arrestin plays a crucial role in the termination of the light response in vertebrate photoreceptors by binding selectively to light-activated, phosphorylated rhodopsin. Arrestin localizes predominantly to the inner segments and perinuclear region of dark-adapted rod photoreceptors, whereas light induces redistribution of arrestin to the rod outer(More)
Although signals controlled by single molecules are expected to be inherently variable, rod photoreceptors generate reproducible responses to single absorbed photons. We show that this unexpected reproducibility-the consistency of amplitude and duration of rhodopsin activity-varies in a graded and systematic manner with the number but not the identity of(More)
The role of the carboxyl-terminal domain in rhodopsin transport was investigated using transgenic mice expressing a rhodopsin truncation mutant lacking the terminal 15 amino acids (S334ter). It was previously shown that S334ter translocates to the outer segment in the presence of endogenous rhodopsin. We now show that in the absence of endogenous rhodopsin(More)
PURPOSE Heterotrimeric G proteins are regulated by receptors that act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and by RGS proteins, which act as guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activating proteins (GAPs). Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), such as activators of G protein signaling (AGS)-1 and -3 and Leu-Gly-Asn(More)
PURPOSE To examine the biochemical characteristics of rod and cone arrestin with respect to their ability to quench the activity of light-activated rhodopsin in transgenic mice. METHODS The mouse rod opsin promoter was used to drive expression of mouse cone arrestin in rod photoreceptor cells of rod arrestin knockout (arr1-/-) mice. Suction electrode(More)
Guanylate cyclase activating proteins are EF-hand containing proteins that confer calcium sensitivity to retinal guanylate cyclase at the outer segment discs of photoreceptor cells. By making the rate of cGMP synthesis dependent on the free intracellular calcium levels set by illumination, GCAPs play a fundamental role in the recovery of the light response(More)
Arrestins constitute a family of small cytoplasmic proteins that mediate deactivation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are known to be essential for cascade inactivation and receptor desensitization. Alternative splicing produces an array of arrestin gene products that have widely different specificities for their cognate receptors in vitro, but(More)