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Techniques of time series analysis were used to examine historical records of the incidence of diphtheria, pertussis, and measles, and of deaths by measles in Portugal during the twentieth century. There are statistically significant seasonal and long-term oscillations in the incidence of these diseases. Seasonal oscillations appear to be in close(More)
The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been available in Portugal since June 2001, but is not included in the National Vaccination Plan. Its impact on colonization is unknown. A point-prevalence study to evaluate PCV7 usage was carried out in 2006 among day-care centre attendees from the Lisbon area. Pneumococcal carriage rates,(More)
BACKGROUND It is widely accepted that the shift in case-fatality rate between waves during the 1918 influenza pandemic was due to a genetic change in the virus. In animal models, the infectious dose of influenza A virus was associated to the severity of disease which lead us to propose a new hypothesis. We propose that the increase in the case-fatality rate(More)
The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the community in Portugal is not completely understood. To evaluate S. aureus and MRSA carriage among the elderly, we conducted a large cross-sectional study between April 2010 and December 2012. A total of 3,361 adults over 60 years of age were screened for S. aureus nasopharyngeal(More)
The performance of an activated sludge reactor can be significantly enhanced through use of continuous and real-time process-state monitoring, which avoids the need to sample for off-line analysis and to use chemicals. Despite the complexity associated with wastewater treatment systems, spectroscopic methods coupled with chemometric tools have been shown to(More)
The high vaccination coverage required to eradicate communicable diseases like measles, mumps and rubella, with a single dose of vaccine, has prompted many countries to introduce a second dose. In this paper we investigate the conditions to eradicate childhood diseases with multiple doses of vaccine by obtaining explicit analytical solutions to the(More)
BACKGROUND The Minho Integrative Neuroscience Database (MIND)-Ageing project aims to identify predictors of healthy cognitive ageing, including socio-demographic factors. In this exploratory analysis we sought to establish baseline cohorts for longitudinal assessment of age-related changes in cognition. METHODS The population sample (472 individuals) was(More)
BACKGROUND Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infection, being active against a wide range of host cells. Although hla is ubiquitous in S. aureus, its genetic diversity and variation in expression in different genetic backgrounds is not known. We evaluated nucleotide sequence variation and gene(More)
A photocatalytic process based on immobilized titanium dioxide was used to treat crude solutions of azo, anthraquinone and phthalocyanine textile dyes. In addition, the process was applied to the treat autoxidized chemically reduced azo dyes, i.e. representatives of recalcitrant dye residues after biological sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment.(More)
In Portugal, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced in the national immunization plan but was commercially available between 2001 and 2010. We studied serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in 2009 and 2010. Vaccination with PCV7 was extracted from children's(More)