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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospitalization in infants. A formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine was used to immunize children and elicited nonprotective, pathogenic antibody. Immunized infants experienced increased morbidity after subsequent RSV exposure. No vaccine has been licensed since that time. A widely accepted hypothesis(More)
OBJECTIVES We characterized the T helper cytokine profiles in the respiratory tract of infants infected with influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus to examine whether these agents elicit similar cytokine responses and whether T helper type 2 polarization is associated with wheezing and severe disease. METHODS A prospective(More)
The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response plays an important role in the control of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication and the establishment of a Th1-CD4+ T cell response against the virus. Despite lacking Major Histocompatibility Complex I (MHC I)-restricted epitopes, the attachment G glycoprotein of RSV enhances CTL activity toward other RSV(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospitalization in infants. A formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine was used to immunize children in 1966 and elicited non-protective, pathogenic antibody. Two immunized infants died and 80% were hospitalized after subsequent RSV exposure. No vaccine was licensed since. A widely accepted hypothesis(More)
Pandemic influenza viruses often cause severe disease in middle-aged adults without preexisting comorbidities. The mechanism of illness associated with severe disease in this age group is not well understood. Here we find preexisting serum antibodies that cross-react with, but do not protect against, 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in middle-aged adults.(More)
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