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Besides patients' health and well-being, healthcare interventions may affect the well-being of significant others. Such 'spill over effects' in significant others may be distinguished in two distinct effects: (i) the caregiving effect and (ii) the family effect. The first refers to the welfare effects of providing informal care, i.e., the effects of caring(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to elicit the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). METHODS In a Web-based questionnaire containing contingent valuation exercises, respondents valued health changes in five scenarios. In each scenario, the respondents first valued two health states on a visual analog scale (VAS)(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in the health of patients may affect the health of so-called "significant others" in 2 distinct ways. First, an individual may provide informal care to the patient and be burdened by the process of care giving. We label this indirect effect of a patient's health on the health of the care giver the "care-giving effect." Second, a person(More)
We tested the influence of the growth in life expectancy over time on social time preferences for health. Growing life expectancy of future generations should raise social discount rates for health because of diminishing marginal utility of additional health gains and equity reasons reflecting the desire for a more equitable distribution of benefits over(More)
In order to assess the influence of long term hemodialysis on progression of uraemic neuropathy (UN), 16 different electroneurographic (ENG) parameters on 158 dialysis patients were performed. The ENG parameters were compared in three groups of patients of different dialysis age. Group I: high dialysis age (HDA) comprising of, 31 patients being more than 10(More)
The healthcare sector depends heavily on the informal care provided by families and friends of those who are ill. Informal caregivers may experience significant burden as well as health and well-being effects. Resource allocation decisions, in particular from a societal perspective, should account explicitly for these effects in the social environment of(More)
Interpreting the outcomes of cost utility analyses requires an appropriately defined threshold for costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). A common view is that the threshold should represent the (consumption) value a society attaches to a QALY. So far, individual valuations of personal health gains have mainly been studied rather than potentially(More)
BACKGROUND A commonly held view of the decision rule in economic evaluations in health care is that the final incremental cost-effectiveness ratio needs to be judged against some threshold, which is equal for all quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gains. This reflects the assumption that "a QALY is a QALY" no matter who receives it, or the equity notion that(More)
Estimates of WTP per QALY can be taken as an indication of the monetary value of health gains, which may carry information regarding the appropriate height of the cost-effectiveness threshold. Given the far-reaching consequences choosing a particular threshold, and thus the potential relevance of WTP per QALY estimates, it is important to address the(More)
BACKGROUND There is an increased interest in the monetary value of a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Past studies commonly derived willingness to pay (WTP) for certain future QALY gains. However, obtaining valid WTP per QALY estimates proved to be difficult. OBJECTIVE We conducted a contingent valuation study and estimated the individual WTP per QALY(More)