Ana Beleza-Meireles

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INTRODUCTION Hypospadias is a common inborn error of the genital development, whose complex etiology remains elusive. Defects of the androgen metabolism and activity have been found in a subset of boys with hypospadias. Moreover, the balance between androgens and estrogens seems to be important to the proper male genital development. Activating(More)
CONTEXT Hypospadias is a common inborn error of the male genitalia of complex, and still elusive, etiology. The presence of active estrogen receptors (ESRs) in the developing male urethra, predominantly the ESR2, has suggested a role of estrogens in the otherwise androgen-dependent male genital differetiation. Moreover, imbalances between these two steroid(More)
INTRODUCTION Hypospadias is a common male congenital urethral malformation, defined as the displacement of the urethral meatus ventrally from the tip of the glans penis. The importance of androgen receptor in male external genitalia development has been well recognized. Recently, the presence of active estrogen receptors (ER) in the developing male external(More)
BACKGROUND Hypospadias is a common inborn error of the male urethral development, for which the aetiology is still elusive. Polymorphic variants in genes involved in the masculinisation of male genitalia, such as the androgen receptor, have been associated with some cases of hypospadias. Co-regulators of the androgen receptor start being acknowledged as(More)
Hypospadias is a common malformation, which results from failure of urethral tube closure, and whose molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. The normal genital development is orchestrated by the urethral plate epithelium (UPE), at the genital tubercle (GT), which has polarizing activity, controlling a network of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions,(More)
Mental Retardation is a common heterogeneous neurodevelopment condition, which causes are still largely elusive. It has been suggested that half of the phenotypic variation of intelligence is explained by genetic variation. And genetic or inherited factors indeed account for most of the cases of mental retardation with an identifiable cause. However, only a(More)
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