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Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are mainstay therapeutics for HIV that block retrovirus replication. Alu (an endogenous retroelement that also requires reverse transcriptase for its life cycle)-derived RNAs activate P2X7 and the NLRP3 inflammasome to cause cell death of the retinal pigment epithelium in geographic atrophy, a type of(More)
Geographic atrophy, an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) characterized by death of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), causes untreatable blindness in millions worldwide. The RPE of human eyes with geographic atrophy accumulates toxic Alu RNA in response to a deficit in the enzyme DICER1, which in turn leads to activation of the(More)
Optimal phototransduction requires separation of the avascular photoreceptor layer from the adjacent vascularized inner retina and choroid. Breakdown of peri-photoreceptor vascular demarcation leads to retinal angiomatous proliferation or choroidal neovascularization, two variants of vascular invasion of the photoreceptor layer in age-related macular(More)
PURPOSE Accumulation of Alu RNA transcripts due to DICER1 deficiency in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) promotes geographic atrophy. Recently we showed that Alu RNA activated the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to RPE cell death via interleukin-18 (IL-18)-mediated MyD88 signaling. However, the molecular basis for NLRP3 inflammasome activation by Alu RNA(More)
Excess iron induces tissue damage and is implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Iron toxicity is widely attributed to hydroxyl radical formation through Fenton's reaction. We report that excess iron, but not other Fenton catalytic metals, induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a pathway also implicated in AMD. Additionally,(More)
To assess the therapeutic outcome of selective block of VEGFR1, we have evaluated the activity of a new specific antagonist of VEGFR1, named iVR1 (inhibitor of VEGFR1), in syngenic and xenograft colorectal cancer models, in an artificial model of metastatization, and in laser-induced choroid neovascularization. iVR1 inhibited tumor growth and(More)
Delta-like 4 (Dll4) is a ligand of the Notch pathway family which has been widely studied in the context of tumor angiogenesis, its blockade shown to result in non-productive angiogenesis and halted tumor growth. As Dll4 inhibitors enter the clinic, there is an emerging need to understand their side effects, namely the systemic consequences of Dll4:Notch(More)
Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world's population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in mice. Here we show bevacizumab suppressed angiogenesis in(More)
Human intravenous immune globulin (IVIg), a purified IgG fraction composed of ~ 60% IgG1 and obtained from the pooled plasma of thousands of donors, is clinically used for a wide range of diseases. The biological actions of IVIg are incompletely understood and have been attributed both to the polyclonal antibodies therein and also to their IgG (IgG) Fc(More)
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