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The Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of severe viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans and is the most prevalent human pathogen among arenaviruses. The present study investigated the largely unknown mechanisms of cell entry of LASV, a process know to be mediated solely by the virus envelope glycoprotein (GP). To circumvent(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is frequent in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and is suspected to aggravate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). METH is a psychostimulant that compromises several neurotransmitter systems and HIV proteins trigger neuronal injury but the combined effects of viral infection and(More)
A test oracle determines whether a test execution reveals a fault, often by comparing the observed program output to the expected output. This is not always practical, for example when a program's input-output relation is complex and difficult to capture formally. Metamorphic testing provides an alternative, where correctness is not determined by checking(More)
Variability testing techniques search for effective and manageable test suites that lead to the rapid detection of faults in systems with high variability. Evaluating the effectiveness of these techniques in realistic settings is a must, but challenging due to the lack of variability-intensive systems with available code, automated tests and fault reports.(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV) is an enveloped virus. Its non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genome has the coding capability for six main polypeptides and has an organization characteristic of members of the order Mononegavirales. However, based on its unique genetics and biological features, BDV is considered to be the prototypic member of a new virus(More)
Several arenaviruses, including Lassa fever virus, cause severe, often lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. No licensed vaccines are available in the United States, and currently there is no efficacious therapy to treat this viral infection. Therefore the importance of developing effective antiviral approaches to combat pathogenic arenaviruses is clear.(More)
HIV-1 infection frequently causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can themselves be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, seems to aggravate HAND and compromise antiretroviral(More)
A recombinant S segment RNA (Sr) of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) where the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVG) was substituted for the glycoprotein of LCMV (LCMV-GP) was produced intracellularly from cDNA under the control of a polymerase I promoter. Coexpression of the LCMV proteins NP and L allowed(More)
We document a helper-independent reverse genetics system for rescuing infectious arenaviruses from cloned cDNAs. We constructed plasmids containing full-length cDNAs of the antigenomic (ag) L and S segments of the Armstrong (ARM) strain of the prototypic Arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) flanked at their 5'- and 3'-termini by the T7 RNA(More)
Studies were undertaken to define the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products and, in particular, of leukotriene (LT) B4 in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) emigration process using a rabbit model of dermal inflammation. Our results show that i.v. administration to rabbits of MK-0591, a compound that inhibits LT biosynthesis in blood and tissues when(More)