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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a human DNA virus, which replicates through an RNA intermediate because of the reverse-transcriptase (RT) activity of its DNA polymerase. As a result, the mutation rate for HBV is higher than the rate observed for most DNA viruses. HBVs are classified into genotypes based on genomic sequencing, and antigenic subtypes based on the(More)
Brain analysis cannot be used for the investigation of active lyssavirus infection in healthy bats because most bat species are protected by conservation directives. Consequently, serology remains the only tool for performing virological studies on natural bat populations; however, the presence of antibodies merely reflects past exposure to the virus and is(More)
To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998-2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) acute infection is often diagnosed only by anti-HEV IgM ELISA methods, whose sensitivity varies, according to different reports. Reports assessing the specificity of commercial assays for anti-HEV IgG testing are scarce, and estimates of sensitivity and specificity are both controversial. The aim of this work is to assess the(More)
The prevalence in the population of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) variants that may impair diagnosis, or allow the virus to escape vaccine-induced immunity or passive immunoglobulin therapy is unknown. A genome fragment encoding HBsAg amino acids 112-212 was amplified and sequenced from the sera of 272 unselected DNA-positive, HBV-chronic(More)
A new adenovirus specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is described. It was designed inside the hexon protein gene of the adenovirus genome, and was able to detect DNA of all 47 human adenovirus types in a wide range of clinical samples. A sensitive internal control system able to assure proper analytical conditions for the amplification of(More)
BACKGROUND Recent data suggest that the prevalence of genotype 4 HCV strains among Spanish carriers is increasing. OBJECTIVE To assess changes in the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Spain during the last nine years. METHODS HCV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction from 3161 serum samples from unselected, anti-HCV-positive individuals, and(More)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes were studied by a line probe assay (LiPA) and by direct sequencing of a 339 nucleotide fragment from the S region of the viral genome in samples from 269 carriers living in Spain, either native to Spain (231) or immigrants from Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe (38). The sequences were also used to predict the HBV(More)
BACKGROUND Human enteroviruses (HEV) are the commonest cause of viral meningitis as well as other pathologies, therefore HEV characterization is important both in patient management and epidemiological investigation. OBJECTIVES A 10-year study of patients with enteroviral infection was carried out in Spain to determine the underlying etiology. STUDY(More)
The Lyssavirus genus includes seven species or genotypes named 1-7. Rabies genotypes correlate with geographical distribution and specific hosts. Co-circulation of different lyssaviruses, imported cases, and the presence of unknown viruses, such as Aravan, Khujand, Irkut and West Caucasian Bat Virus, make it necessary to use generic methods able to detect(More)