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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known to rapidly induce activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) after infection of fibroblast and macrophage cells. NF-kappaB response elements are present in the enhancer region of the CMV major immediate-early promoter (MIEP), and activity of the MIEP is strongly upregulated by NF-kappaB in transient-transfection assays.(More)
Herpesviruses utilize many strategies for weakening the host immune response. For CMV, this includes avoidance of NK clearance and inhibition of MHC class I and class II presentation pathways. In this study, we report that mouse CMV (MCMV) specifically causes a premature and transient activation of host IL-10 very early in the course of infection, resulting(More)
We describe, for the first time, the generation of a viral DNA chip for simultaneous expression measurements of nearly all known open reading frames (ORFs) in the largest member of the herpesvirus family, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In this study, an HCMV chip was fabricated and used to characterize the temporal class of viral gene expression. The viral(More)
The significance of the major immediate-early gene ie3 of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and that of the corresponding ie2 gene of human cytomegalovirus to viral replication are not known. To investigate the function of the MCMV IE3 regulatory protein, we generated two different MCMV recombinants that contained a large deletion in the IE3 open reading frame(More)
The major immediate-early (MIE) genes of cytomegaloviruses (CMV) are broadly thought to be decisive regulators of lytic replication and reactivation from latency. To directly assess the role of the MIE protein IE1 during the infection of murine CMV (MCMV), we constructed an MCMV with exon 4 of the ie1 gene deleted. We found that, independent of the(More)
The transcriptional characterization of the gene coding for the p12 attachment protein of the African swine fever virus is presented. The results obtained have been used to generate the first detailed transcriptional map of an African swine fever virus late gene. Novel experimental evidence indicating the existence of major differences between the(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection causes a rapid induction of c-Fos and c-Jun, the major subunits of activator protein 1 (AP-1), which in turn have been postulated to activate the viral immediate-early (IE) genes. Accordingly, the major IE promoter (MIEP) enhancer, a critical control region for initiating lytic HCMV infection and reactivation from the(More)
MΦ comprise a heterogeneous population of cells, which contribute to host defense and maintenance of immune homeostasis. MΦ may be infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which has evolved different strategies to subvert the immune response. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed the natural killer (NK) cell response against HCMV (TB40E)-infected(More)
The role of NF-kappaB in regulating human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication and gene transcription remains controversial. Multiple, functional NF-kappaB response elements exist in the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) enhancer of HCMV, suggesting a possible requirement for this transcription factor in lytic viral replication. Here we demonstrate by(More)
The inhibitory CD94/NKG2A and activating CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptors specific for HLA-E have been reported to be selectively expressed by discrete NK and T cell subsets. In the present study, minor proportions of NK and T cells coexpressing both CD94/NKG2A and CD94/NKG2C were found in fresh peripheral blood from adult blood donors. Moreover,(More)