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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known to rapidly induce activation of nuclear factor ␬B (NF-␬B) after infection of fibroblast and macrophage cells. NF-␬B response elements are present in the enhancer region of the CMV major immediate-early promoter (MIEP), and activity of the MIEP is strongly upregulated by NF-␬B in transient-transfection assays. Here we(More)
The role of NF-kappaB in regulating human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication and gene transcription remains controversial. Multiple, functional NF-kappaB response elements exist in the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) enhancer of HCMV, suggesting a possible requirement for this transcription factor in lytic viral replication. Here we demonstrate by(More)
Recent studies suggest that the sterol metabolic network participates in the interferon (IFN) antiviral response. However, the molecular mechanisms linking IFN with the sterol network and the identity of sterol mediators remain unknown. Here we report a cellular antiviral role for macrophage production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (cholest-5-en-3β,25-diol,(More)
Little is known about the protective role of inflammatory processes in modulating lipid metabolism in infection. Here we report an intimate link between the innate immune response to infection and regulation of the sterol metabolic network characterized by down-regulation of sterol biosynthesis by an interferon regulatory loop mechanism. In time-series(More)
We describe, for the first time, the generation of a viral DNA chip for simultaneous expression measurements of nearly all known open reading frames (ORFs) in the largest member of the herpesvirus family, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In this study, an HCMV chip was fabricated and used to characterize the temporal class of viral gene expression. The viral(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related cytokines regulate cell death and survival and provide strong selective pressures for viruses, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), to evolve counterstrategies in order to persist in immune-competent hosts. Signaling by the lymphotoxin (LT)-beta receptor or TNF receptor-1, but not Fas or TRAIL receptors, inhibits the(More)
Expression of the activating CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) specific for HLA-E was analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from healthy adult blood donors; the expression of other natural killer (NK) cell receptors (ie, CD94/NKG2A, KIR, CD85j, CD161, NKp46, NKp30, and NKG2D) was also studied. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection as(More)
In vitro PA28 binds and activates proteasomes. It is shown here that mice with a disrupted PA28b gene lack PA28a and PA28b polypeptides, demonstrating that PA28 functions as a hetero-oligomer in vivo. Processing of antigenic epitopes derived from exogenous or endogenous antigens is altered in PA28-/- mice. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses are impaired, and(More)
The transcription of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early (IE) genes is regulated by a large and complex enhancer containing an array of binding sites for a variety of cellular transcription factors. Previously, using bacterial artificial chromosome recombinants of the virus genome, it was reported that the enhancer region of murine CMV (MCMV) is(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is functionally similar to IL-12 in mediating T helper cell type 1 (Th1) response and natural killer (NK) cell activity but is related to IL-1 in protein structure and signaling, including recruitment of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) to the receptor and activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor(More)