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Expression of the activating CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) specific for HLA-E was analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from healthy adult blood donors; the expression of other natural killer (NK) cell receptors (ie, CD94/NKG2A, KIR, CD85j, CD161, NKp46, NKp30, and NKG2D) was also studied. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection as(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known to rapidly induce activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) after infection of fibroblast and macrophage cells. NF-kappaB response elements are present in the enhancer region of the CMV major immediate-early promoter (MIEP), and activity of the MIEP is strongly upregulated by NF-kappaB in transient-transfection assays.(More)
Herpesviruses utilize many strategies for weakening the host immune response. For CMV, this includes avoidance of NK clearance and inhibition of MHC class I and class II presentation pathways. In this study, we report that mouse CMV (MCMV) specifically causes a premature and transient activation of host IL-10 very early in the course of infection, resulting(More)
Recent studies suggest that the sterol metabolic network participates in the interferon (IFN) antiviral response. However, the molecular mechanisms linking IFN with the sterol network and the identity of sterol mediators remain unknown. Here we report a cellular antiviral role for macrophage production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (cholest-5-en-3β,25-diol,(More)
We describe, for the first time, the generation of a viral DNA chip for simultaneous expression measurements of nearly all known open reading frames (ORFs) in the largest member of the herpesvirus family, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In this study, an HCMV chip was fabricated and used to characterize the temporal class of viral gene expression. The viral(More)
The significance of the major immediate-early gene ie3 of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and that of the corresponding ie2 gene of human cytomegalovirus to viral replication are not known. To investigate the function of the MCMV IE3 regulatory protein, we generated two different MCMV recombinants that contained a large deletion in the IE3 open reading frame(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related cytokines regulate cell death and survival and provide strong selective pressures for viruses, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), to evolve counterstrategies in order to persist in immune-competent hosts. Signaling by the lymphotoxin (LT)-beta receptor or TNF receptor-1, but not Fas or TRAIL receptors, inhibits the(More)
Information on natural killer (NK)-cell receptor-ligand interactions involved in the response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is limited and essentially based on the study of infected fibroblasts. Experimental conditions were set up to characterize the NK response to HCMV-infected myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). Monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) infected by the(More)
The inhibitory CD94/NKG2A and activating CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptors specific for HLA-E have been reported to be selectively expressed by discrete NK and T cell subsets. In the present study, minor proportions of NK and T cells coexpressing both CD94/NKG2A and CD94/NKG2C were found in fresh peripheral blood from adult blood donors. Moreover,(More)
The major immediate-early (MIE) genes of cytomegaloviruses (CMV) are broadly thought to be decisive regulators of lytic replication and reactivation from latency. To directly assess the role of the MIE protein IE1 during the infection of murine CMV (MCMV), we constructed an MCMV with exon 4 of the ie1 gene deleted. We found that, independent of the(More)