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Fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) is associated with nucleotide turnover, loss of ATP and generation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP). It is well known that in fatty liver, activity of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is reduced and that its stimulation can prevent hepatic steatosis by both enhancing fat oxidation and reducing lipogenesis. Here we show that(More)
INTRODUCTION Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that increases early in the serum of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to determine whether urine IL-6 is an early biomarker of AKI and determine the source of urine IL-6. Numerous proteins, including cytokines, are filtered by the glomerulus and then(More)
Diabetes is associated with activation of the polyol pathway, in which glucose is converted to sorbitol by aldose reductase. Previous studies focused on the role of sorbitol in mediating diabetic complications. However, in the proximal tubule, sorbitol can be converted to fructose, which is then metabolized largely by fructokinase, also known as(More)
Expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and -2 (AQP2) channels in the kidney are critical for the maintenance of water homeostasis and the operation of the urinary concentrating mechanism. Hypertonic stress induced in inner medullary (IMCD3) cells by addition of NaCl to the medium substantially up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of AQP1, suggesting that(More)
Fructose induces metabolic syndrome in rats; but studies have been criticized for using high concentrations of fructose that are not physiologic, for using only pure fructose, and for not controlling for energy intake. We tested the hypothesis that a 40% sucrose diet (containing 20% fructose) might induce features of metabolic syndrome in male breeder rats(More)
INTRODUCTION Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung(More)
Serum IL-6 is increased in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and increased mortality. Inhibition of IL-6 in mice with AKI reduces lung injury associated with a reduction in the chemokine CXCL1 and lung neutrophils. Whether circulating IL-6 or locally produced lung IL-6 mediates lung injury after(More)
Serum IL-6 is increased in acute kidney injury (AKI) and inhibition of IL-6 reduces AKI-mediated lung inflammation. We hypothesized that circulating monocytes produce IL-6 and that alveolar macrophages mediate lung inflammation after AKI via chemokine (CXCL1) production. To investigate systemic and alveolar macrophages in lung injury after AKI, sham(More)
Proteomic analysis of Inner Medullary Collecting Duct (IMCD3) cells adapted to increasing levels of tonicity (300, 600, and 900 mosmol/kg H(2)O) by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed several proteins as yet unknown to be up-regulated in response to hypertonic stress. Of these proteins, one of the most robustly(More)
INTRODUCTION Acute kidney injury (AKI) and acute lung injury (ALI) are serious complications of sepsis. AKI is often viewed as a late complication of sepsis. Notably, the onset of AKI relative to ALI is unclear as routine measures of kidney function (BUN and creatinine) are insensitive and increase late. In this study, we hypothesized that AKI and ALI would(More)