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Plant stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical meristem are necessary for postembryonic development of aboveground tissues and roots, respectively, while secondary vascular stem cells sustain vascular development. WUSCHEL (WUS), a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the rib meristem of the Arabidopsis SAM, is a key regulatory(More)
Exocytosis plays crucial roles in regulating the distribution and function of plasma membrane (PM) and extracellular matrix proteins. However, measuring the exocytosis rate of a specific protein by conventional methods is very difficult because of exocytosis-independent trafficking such as endocytosis, which also affects membrane protein distribution. Here,(More)
Plant cells in tissues experience mechanical stress not only as a result of high turgor, but also through interaction with their neighbors. Cells can expand at different rates and in different directions from neighbors with which they share a cell wall. This in connection with specific tissue shapes and properties of the cell wall material can lead to(More)
Rapid tip growth allows for efficient development of highly elongated cells (e.g. neuronal axons, fungal hyphae and pollen tubes) and requires an elaborate spatiotemporal regulation of the growing region. Here, we use the pollen tube as a model to investigate the mechanism regulating the growing region. ROPs (Rho-related GTPases from plants) are essential(More)
The objective of this paper is to develop a theoretical analysis of how innovative securities are designed in response to various market imperfections, using the specific example of "mandatory convertibles," which are securities that automatically ("mandatorily") convert to common stock on a pre-specified date. We consider a firm facing a financial market(More)
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