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Expansins are cell wall proteins that promote cell wall loosening by inducing pH-dependent cell wall extension and stress relaxation. Expansins are required in a series of physiological developmental processes in higher plants such as seed germination. Here we identified an Arabidopsis expansin gene AtEXPA2 that is exclusively expressed in germinating seeds(More)
Plant stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical meristem are necessary for postembryonic development of aboveground tissues and roots, respectively, while secondary vascular stem cells sustain vascular development. WUSCHEL (WUS), a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the rib meristem of the Arabidopsis SAM, is a key regulatory(More)
In recent years, the Triple Helix model has identified feasible approaches to measuring relations among universities, industries, and governments. Results have been extended to different databases, regions, and perspectives. This paper explores how bibliometrics and text mining can inform Triple Helix analyses. It engages Competitive Technical Intelligence(More)
* Suppose that there are two congestible modes of travel from A to B — road and rail for concreteness – which are imperfect substitutes in demand. Road congestion from A to B is underpriced; this is an unalterable distortion. Compared to the first best, should the transportation planner choose a wider or narrower road, raise or lower the rail fare, and(More)
  • James R Lothian, Liuren Wu, David Backus, Geert Bekaert, Connie Mccarthy, An Yan
  • 2003
for helpful comments and suggestions. We welcome comments, including references to related papers we have inadvertently overlooked. ABSTRACT Uncovered interest rate parity (UIP) is one of three key theoretical relations used in analytical work in both international finance and international monetary economics. The problem, however, is that UIP does not seem(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) contributes to the failure of chemotherapy and high mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aim to identify MDR genes that predict tumor response to chemotherapy. 199 NSCLC fresh tissue samples were tested for chemosensitivity by MTT assay. cDNA microarray was done with 5 samples with highest resistance and 6 samples(More)
Plant cells in tissues experience mechanical stress not only as a result of high turgor, but also through interaction with their neighbors. Cells can expand at different rates and in different directions from neighbors with which they share a cell wall. This in connection with specific tissue shapes and properties of the cell wall material can lead to(More)
This paper studies the impact of …nancing constraints on the equilibrium of a patent race. We develop a model where …rms …nance their R&D expenditures with an investor who cannot verify their e¤ort. We solve for the optimal …nancial contract of any …rm along its best-response function. In equilibrium, any …rm in the race is more likely to win the more cash(More)
BACKGROUND Integrin â1 subunit and its downstream molecule, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), have been demonstrated to be indispensible to the promotion of cell proliferation and survival and anti-apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via activation of their downstream pro-survival signaling molecule, AKT. As a component of the integrin pathway, Dock180 (dedicator of(More)
Pseudomonas sp. M18, isolated from the watermelon rhizosphere, is antagonistic against a number of soil-borne pathogens. This strain produces an uncharacterized red pigment, pyoluteorin (Plt), and two N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). A previously isolated red-pigment-defective mutant, M18-T510, contains an insert within a gene similar to rhlI in P.(More)