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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and fullerene (C60) are two attractive manufactured nanoparticles with great promise in industrial and medical applications. However, little is known about the genotoxic response of TiO2 nanoparticles and C60 in mammalian cells. In the present study, we determined the mutation fractions induced by either TiO2(More)
Asbestos fibers are carcinogenic to both humans and experimental animals. The continued discoveries of exposure routes whereby the general public is exposed to asbestos suggest a long-term, low-dose exposure for a large number of people. However, the mechanisms by which asbestos induces malignancy are not entirely understood. In previous studies, we have(More)
Although autophagy is most critical for survival of cancer cells, especially in fast-growing tumors, the mechanism remains to be fully characterized. Herein we report that PSMD10/gankyrin promotes autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in response to starvation or stress through 2 complementary routes. PSMD10 was physically associated with ATG7 in the(More)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been of major concerns for decades due to their potential toxicity to human health. To trace the PCBs efficiently and sensitively, many detection methods have been developed. Aptamers, a new class of diagnostic tools, are considered to be such additional candidates for detection of pollutants. In the current study, we(More)
Asbestos is an important environmental carcinogen in the United States and remains the primary occupational concern in many developing countries; however, the underlying mechanisms of its genotoxicity are not known. We showed previously that asbestos is a potent gene and chromosomal mutagen in mammalian cells and that it induces mostly multilocus deletions.(More)
Mitochondria selective autophagy, known as mitophagy, plays a pivotal role in several biological processes, such as elimination of the damaged mitochondria, removal of the mitochondria from immature red blood cells and sperm. The defects in mitophagy are associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disease, aging, cardiac(More)
Although arsenic is a well-established human carcinogen, the underlying carcinogenic mechanism(s) is not known. Using the human-hamster hybrid (AL) cell mutagenic assay that is sensitive in detecting mutagens that induce predominately multilocus deletions, we showed previously that arsenite is indeed a potent gene and chromosomal mutagen and that(More)
Bystander effects induced by low dose of ionizing radiation have been shown to widely exist in many cell types and may have a significant impact on radiation risk assessment. Though many studies have been reported on this phenomenological observation, the mechanisms underlying this process are not clear, especially on the questions of how soon after(More)
Extranuclear/extracellular effects may have a significant effect on low-dose radiation risk assessment as well as on the shape of the dose-response relationship. Numerous studies using different end points such as sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei and mutation have shown that this phenomenon exists in many cell types. However, these end points mostly(More)
BACKGROUND High SOCS3 expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission reflects the shorter time to relapse. We investigated whether high SOCS3 increased risk for relapse through violating STAT3-dependent protective effects of interleukin (IL)-22 during UC remission. METHODS Expression of IL-22 and(More)