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Neural coding for olfactory sensory stimuli has been mapped near completion in the Drosophila first-order center, but little is known in the higher brain centers. Here, we report that the antenna lobe (AL) spatial map is transformed further in the calyx of the mushroom body (MB), an essential olfactory associated learning center, by stereotypic connections(More)
Memory is initially labile and gradually consolidated over time through new protein synthesis into a long-lasting stable form. Studies of odor-shock associative learning in Drosophila have established the mushroom body (MB) as a key brain structure involved in olfactory long-term memory (LTM) formation. Exactly how early neural activity encoded in thousands(More)
Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this(More)
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine cell system secrete serotonin (5-HT) with activation of gut motility, secretion, and pain. These cells express adenosine (ADORA) receptors and are considered to function as mechanosensors. Physiological pathways mediating mechanosensitivity and adenosine responsiveness remain to be fully elucidated,(More)
Gene expression patterns are revealed by GFP reporter. Brains are counterstained with DiD, a fluorescent membrane probe penetrates readily into thick tissue to label all neuropil structures. Because of near infrared emission, DiD is excellent for multicolor labeling together with GFP expression. We routinely image DiD-labeled brains using a 40x(More)
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