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Neural coding for olfactory sensory stimuli has been mapped near completion in the Drosophila first-order center, but little is known in the higher brain centers. Here, we report that the antenna lobe (AL) spatial map is transformed further in the calyx of the mushroom body (MB), an essential olfactory associated learning center, by stereotypic connections(More)
Memory is initially labile and gradually consolidated over time through new protein synthesis into a long-lasting stable form. Studies of odor-shock associative learning in Drosophila have established the mushroom body (MB) as a key brain structure involved in olfactory long-term memory (LTM) formation. Exactly how early neural activity encoded in thousands(More)
Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this(More)
Drinking behavior of the isogenic mouse strain C57BL/6J was analyzed into nongenetic components: stochastic fluctuations, responses to fluctuations in the current environment, and persistent differences between individual animals. The latter accounted for the major part of the variance. The variance was neither increased by differences in diet during the(More)
Feeding and drinking were recorded in male ob/ob mice and lean mice fed pelleted Purina Lab Chow No. 5001 with water to drink. The circadian patterns of eating and drinking of obese mice differed from those of lean mice, in both the proportional temporal distributions of feeding and of drinking behavior across the 24-hour day and in the absolute amounts(More)
Gene expression patterns are revealed by GFP reporter. Brains are counterstained with DiD, a fluorescent membrane probe penetrates readily into thick tissue to label all neuropil structures. Because of near infrared emission, DiD is excellent for multicolor labeling together with GFP expression. We routinely image DiD-labeled brains using a 40x(More)
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