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Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies and is associated with a dismal prognosis. Although treatment options have increased for some patients, overall progress has been modest. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatments. We found that Baohuoside-I, a flavonoid extracted from a Chinese medicinal plant, exhibits anticancer(More)
For adoptive T-cell therapy to be effective against solid tumors, tumor-specific T cells must be able to migrate to the tumor site. One requirement for efficient migration is that the effector cells express chemokine receptors that match the chemokines produced either by tumor or tumor-associated cells. In this study, we investigated whether the tumor(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is produced in most human tumors and markedly inhibits tumor antigen-specific cellular immunity, representing a major obstacle to the success of tumor immunotherapy. TGF-beta is produced in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma both by the tumor cells and by infiltrating T-regulatory(More)
An effective immune response to antigen requires professional antigen-presenting cell (APC), which not only present antigen, but also provide costimulation and cytokines (eg, IL-12) that drive T cell differentiation down the appropriate effector pathway (Tc1/TH1). For T cell-based immunotherapy protocols, the availability of large numbers of autologous(More)
An optimized antigen-presenting cell for tumor immunotherapy should produce a robust antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) response to tumor-associated antigens, which can persist in vivo and expand on antigen reencounter. Interleukin (IL)-21 synergizes with other gamma-chain cytokines to enhance the frequency and cytotoxicity of antigen-specific(More)
Side-population (SP) analysis has been used to identify progenitor cells from normal and malignant tissues as well as revealing tumor cells with increased resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Despite enhanced chemoresistance, tumor SP cells may still express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which may render them susceptible to elimination by the(More)
Side-population (SP) analysis identifies precursor cells in normal and malignant tissues. Cells with this phenotype have increased resistance to many cytotoxic agents, and may represent a primary drug-resistant population in malignant diseases. To discover whether drug-resistant malignant SP cells are nonetheless sensitive to immune-mediated killing, we(More)
We describe a method to measure in vivo migration of human T cells by using the near-infrared (NIR) dye IRDye800CW. Labeling of Epstein-Barr virus-specific T cells with IRDye800CW did not affect viability, proliferation, or T cell function. Following tail vein injection into mice bearing subcutaneous tumors, the NIR signal could be measured in vivo at the(More)