An K. Raes

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1. CGP 40116 is the active (R)-enantiomer of the most potent N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist presently available: 2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid (CGP 37849). In this study, we describe the effect of CGP 40116 on whole-cell currents induced by excitatory amino acids in cultured mouse spinal cord cells by use of the(More)
In mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons the activation curve of the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) shifted towards depolarized potentials when cAMP was present in the pipette. The relation between the midpoint potential and cAMP concentration could be described by a Hill function with a half-maximal concentration of 0.55 microM cAMP,(More)
1. The sinus node inhibitors UL FS 49 and DK-AH 269 reduce heart rate by slowing diastolic depolarization rate in the sino-atrial (SA) node, which might originate from the use-dependent blockade of a hyperpolarization-activated current If. A hyperpolarization-activated current Ih, which is present in many types of neurons, is similar to If. We studied the(More)
Guanidine, creatinine (CTN), methylguanidine (MG) and guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA) are four endogenous guanidino compounds with proven neuroexcitatory actions, and putative pathophysiological significance as uraemic toxins. The effects of these uraemic guanidino compounds, were studied on whole-cell current evoked by gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) on mouse(More)
Previous research has indicated that conditioning depends on contingency awareness (CA). However, we argue that these studies have examined this issue under methodological conditions that might be insensitive to associative learning without CA. In the present study we examined the effect of an experimental manipulation of CA on attentive processing of(More)
OBJECTIVES Later life is often accompanied by experiences of loss and bereavement in several life domains. In spite of this, older adults experience less negative affect than their younger counterparts. Several explanations for this paradoxical finding have been put forward, but the mechanisms underlying the association between age and negative affect(More)
Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two(More)
In the literature on aversive conditioning there is still debate on the role of awareness. According to some authors, affective learning can occur with or without contingency learning (dual-process model), whereas others argue that a single process produces both affective responses and contingency knowledge. Although many studies have investigated these(More)
Exposure therapy is an effective technique for fear reduction. However, whether effective exposure requires attentional allocation to the feared situation remains a debated clinical issue. In the present study, the impact of attention allocation in extinction was investigated in an experimental conditioning study. Through a between-subjects manipulation of(More)
Prior research showed that mere instructions about the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) can generate fear reactions to the CS. Little is known, however, about the extent to which actual CS-US contingency experience adds anything beyond the effect of contingency instructions. Our results extend previous(More)