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Hepatic steatosis is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and leads to hepatic insulin resistance. Malonyl-CoA, generated by acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (Acc1 and Acc2), is a key regulator of both mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and fat synthesis. We used a diet-induced rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is strongly associated with hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the molecular signals linking hepatic fat accumulation to hepatic insulin resistance are unknown. Three days of high-fat feeding in rats results specifically in hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. In this setting,(More)
Two large health care reference terminologies, SNOMED RT and Clinical Terms Version 3 , are in the process of being merged to form a comprehensive new work referred to as SNOMED Clinical Terms. The College of American Pathologists and the United Kingdom s National Health Service have entered into a collaborative agreement to develop this new work. Both(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major contributing factor to hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Dgat), of which there are two isoforms (Dgat1 and Dgat2), catalyzes the final step in triglyceride synthesis. We evaluated the metabolic impact of pharmacological reduction of DGAT1 and -2 expression in(More)
The role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in diabetic nephropathy is typically viewed through the lens of inflammation, but MCP-1 might exert noninflammatory effects on the kidney cells directly. Glomerular podocytes in culture, verified to express the marker nephrin, were exposed to diabetic mediators such as high glucose or angiotensin II and(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta plays a critical role in diabetic nephropathy. To isolate the contribution of one of the signaling pathways of TGF-beta, the Smad3 gene in the mouse was knocked out at exons 2 and 3, and the effect was studied in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes over a period of 6 wk. TGF-beta activity was increased in the diabetic(More)
For investigation of how the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system participates in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease, type 2 diabetic db/db and control db/m mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or 2 mg/kg of a pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, SU5416, twice a week for 8 wk. Efficacy of SU5416 treatment in the(More)
BACKGROUND The podocyte is bathed in an angiotensin II (AngII)-rich ultrafiltrate, but the impact of AngII on podocyte pathobiology is not well known. Because podocytes play a direct role in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening of diabetes, the alpha3(IV) collagen chain was examined. Podocyte expression of alpha3(IV) collagen may involve the(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is recognized as a cofactor in hepatitis C (HCV) liver injury. Adipokines may be the link between increasing body mass index (BMI) and disease progression in HCV. Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is present in serum in a range of multimeric forms that appear to have different metabolic functions. METHODS We studied 30(More)
SNOMED Clinical Terms is a comprehensive concept-based health care terminology that was created by merging SNOMED RT and Clinical Terms Version 3. Following the mapping of concepts and descriptions into a merged database, the terminology was further refined by adding new content, modeling the relationships of individual concepts, and reviewing the(More)