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Over one billion people live in the world's 200,000 slums and informal settlements. We used data generated from mobile phones to better understand one of the largest slums, Kibera located in Nairobi, Kenya. Using call logs from June 2008-June 2009 and theories from human geography, economics, sociology, journalists , and anthropologists as a basis, we(More)
Human movements contribute to the transmission of malaria on spatial scales that exceed the limits of mosquito dispersal. Identifying the sources and sinks of imported infections due to human travel and locating high-risk sites of parasite importation could greatly improve malaria control programs. Here, we use spatially explicit mobile phone data and(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was an investigation of the safety and efficacy of primary below-knee stent-supported angioplasty (BKSSA) for restoring straight inline arterial flow in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) or lifestyle-limiting claudication (LLC). BACKGROUND Surgical tibial bypass for CLI and severe LLC is associated with(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the efficacy and safety of using balloon expandable drug-eluting stents (DES) to prevent amputations in patients with below-the-knee critical limb ischemia. BACKGROUND Critical limb ischemia patients have a 1-year amputation rate of 30% and a mortality rate of 25%. Most patients with critical limb ischemia have severe(More)
Novel data streams (NDS), such as web search data or social media updates, hold promise for enhancing the capabilities of public health surveillance. In this paper, we outline a conceptual framework for integrating NDS into current public health surveillance. Our approach focuses on two key questions: What are the opportunities for using NDS and what are(More)
The rapid adoption of mobile phone technologies in Africa is offering exciting opportunities for engaging with high-risk populations through mHealth programs, and the vast volumes of behavioral data being generated as people use their phones provide valuable data about human behavioral dynamics in these regions. Taking advantage of these opportunities(More)
Mobile phone data are increasingly being used to quantify the movements of human populations for a wide range of social, scientific and public health research. However, making population-level inferences using these data is complicated by differential ownership of phones among different demographic groups that may exhibit variable mobility. Here, we(More)
Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM) in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important,(More)
Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable(More)