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Previous studies suggest that increased physical activity may lower the risk of breast cancer incidence, but less is known about whether levels of physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis can influence survival. We prospectively examined the relation between postdiagnosis recreational physical activity and risk of breast cancer death in women who had(More)
Epidemiological evidence now consistently supports a modest increase in breast cancer risk among women using postmenopausal hormones, usually estrogens. Less is known regarding how the addition of progestin affects breast cancer risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the type and duration of postmenopausal therapy and breast cancer risk. We(More)
Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium(More)
Whereas germ line missense mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are associated with a marked predisposition to breast cancer, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may play a more modest role in breast cancer susceptibility. We examined genetic variation in TP53 in relation to breast cancer risk among women aged 20-74 years in a population-based(More)
BACKGROUND Women who live in geographic areas with high poverty rates and low levels of education experience poorer survival after a breast cancer diagnosis than women who live in communities with indicators of high socioeconomic status (SES). However, very few studies have examined individual-level SES in relation to breast cancer survival or have assessed(More)
As more women obtain screening mammograms regularly and at younger ages, the diagnosis of breast carcinoma in situ becomes more frequent. To examine whether risk factors for carcinoma in situ correspond with risk factors for invasive breast cancer, we analyzed data from a population-based case-control study conducted in 1988-1990. We identified newly(More)
BACKGROUND Women are at higher risk of breast cancer if they have higher socioeconomic status (SES) or live in higher SES or urban communities. We examined whether women living in such communities remained at greater risk of breast cancer after controlling for individual education and other known individual-level risk factors. METHODS Data were from a(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is critical to regulation of inflammation. Genetic variation in the promoter region of TNF has been associated with expression differences, and a range of auto-immune, infectious, and oncologic diseases. We analyzed eight common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs746868, rs909253, rs1799964, rs1800630, rs1800750,(More)
Numerous studies have observed reduced breast cancer risk with increasing levels of physical activity, yet these findings have been inconsistent about optimal times of activity and effect modification by other factors. We investigated the association between recreational and occupational physical activity and breast cancer risk in a population-based(More)
We evaluated the generalizability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2046210 (A/G allele), associated with breast cancer risk that was initially identified at 6q25.1 in a genome-wide association study conducted among Chinese women. In a pooled analysis of more than 31,000 women of East-Asian, European, and African ancestry, we found a positive(More)