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Previous studies suggest that increased physical activity may lower the risk of breast cancer incidence, but less is known about whether levels of physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis can influence survival. We prospectively examined the relation between postdiagnosis recreational physical activity and risk of breast cancer death in women who had(More)
Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium(More)
Cadmium is a toxic, bioaccumulated heavy metal with a half-life of one to four decades in humans (CDC, 2005). Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. In our population-based study, a risk-factor interview was conducted as part of a breast cancer study for 251 randomly selected women living in Wisconsin (USA), aged 20-69 yr, and spot-urine(More)
Epidemiological evidence now consistently supports a modest increase in breast cancer risk among women using postmenopausal hormones, usually estrogens. Less is known regarding how the addition of progestin affects breast cancer risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the type and duration of postmenopausal therapy and breast cancer risk. We(More)
It is not yet known whether early-life physical activity reduces the risk of developing breast cancer. Subgroup analyses according to menopausal status and body mass may help clarify this association. Data from a population-based case-control study of female residents of Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire were used to examine associations(More)
Numerous studies have observed reduced breast cancer risk with increasing levels of physical activity, yet these findings have been inconsistent about optimal times of activity and effect modification by other factors. We investigated the association between recreational and occupational physical activity and breast cancer risk in a population-based(More)
Whereas germ line missense mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are associated with a marked predisposition to breast cancer, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may play a more modest role in breast cancer susceptibility. We examined genetic variation in TP53 in relation to breast cancer risk among women aged 20-74 years in a population-based(More)
The Wisconsin Breast Cancer Epidemiology Simulation Model is a discrete-event, stochastic simulation model using a systems-science modeling approach to replicate breast cancer incidence and mortality in the U.S. population from 1975 to 2000. Four interacting processes are modeled over time: (1) natural history of breast cancer, (2) breast cancer detection,(More)
BACKGROUND Factors related to improving outcomes in breast cancer survivors are of increasing public health significance. We examined postdiagnosis weight change in relation to mortality risk in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. METHODS We analyzed data from a cohort of 3,993 women with ages 20 to 79 years living in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, or(More)
BACKGROUND Women are at higher risk of breast cancer if they have higher socioeconomic status (SES) or live in higher SES or urban communities. We examined whether women living in such communities remained at greater risk of breast cancer after controlling for individual education and other known individual-level risk factors. METHODS Data were from a(More)