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Early in life, there is a delicate and critical balance aimed to maintain low hormone responses derived from the stress responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). However, in the infant rat hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) stress responses to environmental events are clearly seen even though other elements of the HPA axis may(More)
Craniofacial anomalies were correlated with mutant murine sirenomelia. Ninety-eight newborn sirens from heterozygous matings were examined and analyzed. In the 96 sirens that had intact craniofacial structures, micrognathia was seen in 39% of the sirens, microstomia in 34%, macroglossia in 26%, and cleft palate in 21%. Even when not cleft, the siren palates(More)
Fifteen pregnant Macaca mulatta were treated with doses of 20 or 40 mg of retinoic acid between 19--45 or 17--45 days of gestation, respectively, for 4--8 consecutive days. Based on gross examination, ten malformed infants, including one stillbirth and one abortus, four normal infants, and one resorption were produced. The most critical sensitive period was(More)